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The Passionate Time of Chinese Hackers

[Editor’s note: On February 12, 2005, Mr. Min Dahong, Director of the Network and Data Media Research Center for the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences’ Institute of Journalism and Communication, published an article in his column on the Blogchina.com website, entitled, "Bidding Farewell to the Passionate Time of the Chinese Hackers-the Dissolution of the Chinese Red Hacker’s Alliance." The following is an excerpt from his article, documenting the six attacks that the red hackers initiated between 1998 and 2001. The article reflects the viewpoint of a Chinese scholar from a state-owned research institute.]

Between 1998 and 2001, the Chinese Hackers (CH), initiated six massive Internet attacks on foreign countries. From a rational standpoint, all hacker attacks should be condemned, but from a perceptual standpoint, the CH initiated the six attacks with justification, strongly demonstrating the spirit of "I will not harm you if you don’t harm me. I’ll certainly harm you if you do harm me." [Translator’s note: This quotation came from Mao Tse-Tung.] The CH is the first hacker group over the Chinese Internet to have had a great impact. Its impact derives from six large-scale massive attacks, politically motivated, on foreign countries. Back then, this group of young people, filled with political passion and technical ambition, not only maintained our country’s dignity but also, more importantly, motivated the development of Internet security on the newly born Chinese Internet.

At a time when the Chinese Red Hacker’s Alliance is disbanding, I am putting online section No. 2 from my yet-to-be-published book to share with viewers. This is dedicated to the Chinese hacker, who is full of passion and a sense of justice.

The First Attack: on the Indonesian Internet in August 1998

Riots occurred in Indonesia in May of 1998. During the riots, many ethnic Chinese were attacked, and many Chinese women were assaulted in the most horrible ways. Not until July and August did the facts find their way to the outside world, over the Internet. Because the domestic media wasn’t reporting what happened to the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, Chinese Internet users learned about it on the Web. By early August, the protests by Chinese people throughout the world reached a peak. The Chinese throughout the world held demonstrations simultaneously on August 7. The crimes committed by the Indonesian mob infuriated the Chinese hackers, who at that time were no more than novices in this new field. They gathered in IRCs (chatrooms), and decided to attack Indonesian websites. This was the first joint effort of Chinese hackers to attack foreign websites, and it displayed a degree of uniformity and coordination that set an example for later similar actions.

On August 7, the editor of ChinaByte found a new posting in the website’s forum; it claimed that Chinese hackers had successfully attacked an Indonesian website. Attached to the posting was a link to the website that had not yet recovered. The editor, after confirming the information, decided to send, for the first time, a "supplement" to subscribers of the daily email news. The supplement contained only two sentences and a Web link, but the most important message was nonetheless conveyed. It read:

"Your website has been attacked by Chinese hackers. Indonesian mob: you’ll pay for your crimes!!! Stop killing Chinese!!! "

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The above message appeared on a ‘to kobudi.co.id’ Indonesian website. This website was currently being attacked by Chinese hackers.

Within minutes, this supplemental email news was sent to tens of thousands of email boxes. On August 10, ChinaByte published a front-page story on this incident. The headline read, "The Anti-Chinese Crimes in Indonesia Have Enraged Chinese Hackers," and the subtitle read, "Anger Surges on the Internet."

In fact, even before August 7, Chinese hackers had begun launching attacks on Indonesian websites and email boxes. They usurped the rights of network security administrators by deciphering passwords, posting on the front pages of Indonesian websites slogans such as, "Dear suffering fellow Chinese: I am indignant and crying for you," "Bring Justice to the Murderers! Bring Justice to the Criminals! Blood for Blood!" At the same time, they posted the email addresses of key departments of the Indonesian government, and taught other Internet users how to "bomb" these email boxes. On August 17, Indonesian Independence Day, many Indonesian websites were attacked again by Chinese hackers, who posted messages, in Chinese and broken English, condemning the anti-Chinese crimes by the Indonesian mob on the front pages of these websites. A Chinese hacker wrote in the guest book of the hacked Indonesian website that he only meant to remind people not to forget the tragedy in May, and that the attack would not cause loss of data. He told the webmaster to keep the altered front page for 48 hours, and in place of his signature he wrote, "Warning from the Chinese." The hacker obviously wanted people to remember the anti-Chinese turmoil that also lasted 48 hours in Indonesia.

The Chinese hackers’ attack provoked an intense reaction from the Indonesian government. They accused the Chinese government of instigating the Chinese hackers’ actions, pointing out that it was an extreme sign that China seeks regional hegemony. According to a report from "Voice of America," published on August 9, an Indonesian government official protested the "Chinese hackers’ atrocity." According to him, since August 7, at least ten websites in Indonesia had been destroyed by an organization claiming to be "the Chinese hackers." Some websites were pasted over with terrorist pictures, and the majority of the websites were thoroughly destroyed. Moreover, on August 7, nearly all Indonesian government public email boxes were fanatically bombed. This official said, "We hope the Chinese maintain a clear mind, because what happens is our business! If the Chinese do not want to distinguish clearly between the Chinese and overseas Chinese, it demonstrates that China is a threatening country. China cannot take the place where overseas Chinese live as its own territory. In the 1950s, when China sent a warship to our country, we could understand, because they took their own people back to their country. Today, the Chinese hackers came, and we are baffled, because they have willfully interfered with our internal affairs. Everyone realizes that, without having the Chinese government to instruct them, the all-China women’s federation would not have protested; the Chinese government not only interferes with our internal affairs, but it also incites the domestic hackers to attack us. We are extremely displeased!"
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On August 11, an Indonesian government electronics technology manager spoke once again on the Chinese hackers’ behavior. He said that although the hacker attack had caused very big losses to Indonesia, he could understand the indignation. He asked people not to believe the description on the Internet about how bad the riot was. He said the Indonesian government could deal well with its own problem. When asked about the losses from the hacker attack, he said hundreds of websites were attacked, more than a dozen were broken into, and the majority was sabotaged. The hackers attempted to attack the financial system, causing some losses. In addition, Indonesia’s network was exceptionally crowded on August 7, and the government email system was nearly paralyzed. The attacks had a certain influence on Indonesia’s normal social order. Then this spokesperson changed to a sensational tone: "We are sure that China’s massive ISP relied on its broadband superiority to carry out email bombings at us for 30 hours; it’s very unconvincing to claim that this was not an organized action. The air raid alarm did not go off. Otherwise, I would certainly have thought that China had declared war on Indonesia. On the other hand, any network has its loopholes, and any country has its hackers; we hope that this is not the beginning of hatred between these two great nations. I did not believe in China’s threat in the past. Now I know we should not just believe what the Chinese government says. Just ‘a venting of anger’ by its one billion citizens, secretly instigated by the government, is an awe-inspiring strength." He finally said, "I dare to make a bet: The hacker attack is merely a signal that China will dominate the region. When they step on our national territory, and start saying this and that, everybody will think ‘China threat’ is an appropriate description: Friends in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations should first of all remember this!"

The Second Attack: on the American Internet in May 1999

In the initial period of the war in Kosovo in 1999, the Chinese hackers did not take many extreme actions toward the websites of the U.S. and other NATO countries. The situation changed dramatically after the missile bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia. The protest on the Chinese Internet was as fierce as the student protests in front of the American Embassy and Consulates in China. The Chinese hackers could not bear the killing of their fellow Chinese, the Chinese Embassy being bombed, and China’s national dignity being infringed upon. They launched a fierce attack on government and military websites in the United States and in other NATO nations, lasting for days. Compared to the attack on the Indonesian websites, this time more Chinese Internet users joined the action. It surpassed the first attack on Indonesia in both scale and damage. Quite a few websites, including the American Embassy in China, the White House, and other U.S. and NATO institutions, were smeared. In some cases, the computer systems were paralyzed.
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On May 8, after Web surfers learned the news that the Chinese Embassy had been bombed, and as if in response to an alarm, they immediately got on the Internet. A surfer by the name of "Ninth Magnate," posted his message on May 11: "Network People’s War—Online Anti-America Experiences," which vividly described the online situation. At the end he wrote, "This is a genuine people’s war on the Net: In the chatroom and in the BBS forum, the surfers, using their ten fingers plus the keyboard, wage war against the traitors to China, the advocates of Taiwan independence, and others who are hostile toward the Chinese people. Back home, many people rapidly joined in protesting the NATO atrocity, with articles and pictures on their homepages, forming the anti-NATO alliance. Their ICQ, FrontPage and CUTEFTP … remain online all the time, making up-to-date information available to their allies. Fighting in the frontline is this special troop—China’s hackers, who are carrying on the special fight in the most dangerous place. … Above are my online experiences from midnight, May 8, to dawn on May 9. During the 24 hours of action from 9 a.m. of May 8, to the morning of the next day, I ate only one meal for lunch. I will not write about what happened after 8 a.m. on May 9. Some sources said that more than 300 websites in the United States were hacked into on May 9. The night of May 8, 1999, is difficult to forget, with its innumerable Chinese Web surfers. Since the existence of the Internet, not one thing like this could have affected a whole nation’s sensitivity. Although only facing the computer screen, I could feel Web surfers’ sincere, patriotic hearts. We sensed all the peoples’ support gathered online at that special time. During the nearly week-long campaign, numerous surfers and hackers worked online late into the night. Many would say goodbye to others at 2 or 3 a.m., sometimes at 4 or 5 a.m., when they could not hold on any longer."

The White House homepage has been attacked many times since May 8th. Some Chinese Web surfers kept four different screen captures of the smeared White House homepage. A most splendid version was that on the White House main page: The two American flags on the side were replaced with a pirate skull flag, and the flag on top of the White House was also changed into a skull flag. During the attacks on the White House website, hackers from Hong Kong also participated. In just several days, the Chinese hackers posted pictures of the three reporters who had died, along with words of protest or Nazi-inspired pictures of President Clinton, onto several hundred American government websites, and even onto NATO websites. Many Chinese websites relentlessly posted the web address of U.S. government organizations and military establishments. For example, the website, "China Dragon," has collected many website addresses of the United States Air Force. It specially mentioned, "According to an investigation, the party that carried out the bombing of our Yugoslavian embassy is the 509th Bombing Wing in Missouri’s Whiteman Air Force Base. Namely, the B-2 Air Force Base. Its website is …(omitted). It invites the hacker master to perform wantonly bombing. All Chinese people will thank you! ! !" News of successful hacking was announced from time to time.
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In this hacker attack, some hackers worked individually, and some powerful hacker "army corps" emerged, as well. On May 9, an organization called the "Chinese hacker emergency meeting center" was formed, announcing the passwords of more than 250 websites in the United States (they only knew a tiny portion of the homepages). Many Chinese Web surfers immediately attacked these websites. The organization declared, "This is only a provisional organization: the members come from everywhere in China. The reason for its establishment is NATO’s unreasonable barbaric provocation. Our goal is to protest, and break the news blockade of foreign media that are hostile to China, enabling the people to clearly see America’s and NATO’s hegemonic point of view and their animalistic behavior. We do not have a strict assignment or a code of conduct, we do not even know one another, but we unite wholeheartedly. We firmly support the position of the Chinese government and the Communist Party of China. We will not leave behind any trace of evidence. The public security department can rest assured that we only use the images that can represent the entire Chinese people to replace the NATO military homepage. We will not delete or destroy any of their data. So long as the final goal of the Chinese people and the Chinese government is unconditionally guaranteed, we will not react. But, now, we are taking action!" This organization launched the third attack at 8 a.m. on May 16, thoroughly bombarding many of the websites of the U.S. Navy and Washington communication center (BASS).

In order to transform more surfers into hackers, information on how to become instant hackers was made widely available online. Besides the attacks to American websites made by the hacker masters, another attack method is to use "PING" to destroy the other party’s server, i.e., through email bombing. During that period, slogans were often seen on the Internet, such as "Let us unite! The email missile is our attack weapon. If hundreds of thousands of people cooperate together, we can very quickly paralyze this website." Detailed instructions on how to use "PING," and coordinate a time of attack were also often seen on the Internet. This simple strategy of mass attack had an enormously damaging impact. On May 12, the "Voice of America" Chinese email news reported that, "The Chinese people protested not only everywhere in China. They also directly sent out massive amounts of email to express their anger to the White House. The email amount was huge, causing the White House website to break down on Monday, and be shut down temporarily for repair. The White House spokesperson indicated that, on Monday evening, a White House intern found that he was unable to connect to the White House’s website, and only then did the White House computer department personnel discover that the huge email volume had incapacitated the White House website, causing it to crash. The situation returned to normal Tuesday evening. This spokesperson indicated that this was the first time ever that the White House website had experienced a breakdown due to excessive email.

The general Web surfers gave the warmest applause and cheers whenever an American homepage was hacked. There were abundant, encouraging Internet messages: "Salute to our hackers!" "I very much admire and respect the hackers! Whoever can contribute to the nation during a key time is the hero!" Some called the hackers "black guest" in Chinese, and "red guest," to put a revolutionary color on them. Some Internet users impatiently wanted to learn to be hackers: "Please, my beloved hacker master, teach me your techniques, so that I can work for our nation by hacking the Americans."
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On May 17, in order to gauge the public’s response about the Chinese hackers, the "Chinese hacker emergency meeting center" posted a poll on its homepage. By 11 p.m. on May 20, 717 people had responded: (1) supports absolutely, wanting to join the action (81%); (2) supports, but cannot join the action (13%); (3) basically supports, but has reservations about details (3%); (4) don’t care (0%); (5) not very good (0%); (6) opposed absolutely (1%). Although an online poll is not so reliable, it helps to reveal people’s feelings, in general. Regarding the hackers’ attack, even many newspapers responded affirmatively, calling the hackers "the Internet soldiers," and "the Internet brave warriors." One newspaper carried a section entitled, "The brave warriors on the Internet in this specific historical time have become our Byte-time heroes."

The color red in China is associated with revolution, and represents victory. In this round of Chinese hackers’ attacks, "red hacker" is used to indicate the action is for justice: "the red hacker" has become the Chinese hacker’s outer wrapping. The Honker Union of China (HUC), as the main attacking force in China, explicitly proposed that, "hong-ke (the red guest) should always be phonetically translated into honker." They felt that since English is the popular world language, if honker became a formal English word, it would carry great significance for them.

They explicitly proposed that honkers’ objectives should be to "Support the unification of the country; safeguard the sovereignty of the nation; fight together against foreign provocation; attack anti-China hostile forces," and to "attack Japanese rightists and American imperialists on Taiwan independence, as well as all others who are hostile to our country."

The Third Attack: on Taiwan in August 1999

On July 9, 1999, Taiwan’s President Li Denghui was interviewed by the "Voice of Germany" and announced his "two-country theory." He stated that the relationship across the Taiwan Strait should be "country to country, or at least a special state-to-state relationship." Some officials in the Taiwan government also echoed Li, by saying that the relationship across the Strait had gone from "two equivalent political bodies" to "two states," and negotiations should be "talk between two nations." The "two-country theory" immediately made bilateral relations intense. The mainland hackers, having just gained a lot of experience from attacking the United States, on August 7, began an assault on more than 10 Taiwan government websites. Taiwan hackers launched a counterattack on August 8. The mainland hackers pasted on the hacked homepages, "There is only one China in the world; the world only needs one China," while the Taiwan hackers pasted on China’s hacked homepages, "Taiwan forever is a separated part from China." The mainland hackers put the Five-Star red flag of the PRC on the homepages they hacked into; the Taiwan hackers put the Blue-Sky-White-Sun flag of Taiwan on the homepages they managed to hack into. For a while, it was a fierce Internet war. Hong Kong and the Taiwan newspapers reported on it, using eye-catching titles such as, "The War on the Internet Has Begun," and "War on the Internet: the Unavoidable." Some of the reports said, "While the troops on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are still kept on hold and try to scare each other, civilians have already started an information-age battle. Hackers from both sides attack the other side’s websites, trying to post political slogans on them to demonstrate hacking capability."
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Under attack by the mainland hackers, Taiwan lost several key government websites, including its "National Security Bureau," which logged 7,200 attacks in three days. Besides deleting or altering the homepages, the mainland hackers also implanted back-door Trojan viruses into many hacked Taiwan servers. That paralyzed many servers for a long time. Worthy of mentioning is that this is the first time that Chinese hackers started to use the made-in-China Trojan viruses, "Ice River" and "NetSpy," instead of using the American "BO" Trojan virus. For some time, the Trojan "Ice River" was the most popular virus used by Chinese hackers. The security alarm posted on the Taiwan "National Assembly" website on August 11 stated that it seemed both software and hardware on its system were severely damaged; the system could not be brought back even after reinstallation of all software. Taiwan police were shocked by the fact that the hacker attack resulted in hardware damage. Under the Taiwan hackers’ first-wave counterattack, several Chinese official websites were hacked into, including the Ministry of Railways, The Chinese Security Exchange Monitor, and the Shaanxi Province science and technology information network.

As the Internet War gradually escalated, a large number of non-government websites fell victim to assault. Participants became less and less rational, regarding hacking into any website, governmental or not, as a victory. This kind of indiscriminate assault is common when the hacker is politically motivated, being very different from the traditional definition of "hacking." The battle across the Taiwan Strait did not experience a cease-fire until the end of August.

The attacks between mainland and Taiwan hackers are protracted ones. New attacks can be triggered whenever some sensitive events occur. For instance, on March 18, 2000, the night that Chen Shuibian won the Taiwan election, some mainland hackers launched a new assault.

After the 2004 Taiwan election, Taiwan intelligence disclosed that right after the completion of the March 20 election, mainland Chinese hackers broke through all the firewalls, hacking into the network systems of the National Security Bureau and the President’s Office, stealing some top-secret documents. In recent years, Taiwan media often has reported that an "army of mainland hackers invaded Taiwan." The political deadlock regarding the Taiwan Strait has resulted in a long-term hacker war between both sides.

The Fourth Attack: on Japanese Websites from January to February 2000

On January 21, 2000, the Japanese Supreme Court ruled against the appeal of World War II veteran "Dong Shilang." On January 23, the Japanese right-wing faction rallied at the Osaka International Peace Center, publicly denying the existence of the Nanjing Massacre. (An estimated 300,000 Chinese were slaughtered during the six weeks after Nanjing was occupied by Japanese in December 1937. The Japanese removed any reference to the massacre from their textbooks.) This again evoked nationalist sentiment among Chinese hackers, who in turn vowed to have an "online, new Anti-Japanese war," and began to attack the Japanese websites. The defaced Japanese websites read, "Japanese who deny the truth of history are the shame of Asia." This showed that the attack was politically motivated.

During this attack, an organization self-named the "China Extreme-Rightist Anti-Japan Alliance" was very conspicuous (it had a website at that time: http://www.bsptt.gx.cn/public/badboy/hack/). From January 24 to February 13, this organization hacked into about 30 of Japan’s websites, including the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of General Affairs, the Mainichi Newspaper, NHK, Okinawa Postal Office, JVC, etc. This organization’s website posted a provocative "open letter to the Japanese government," claiming that the purpose of the Alliance was to "feverishly attack a few Japanese mad dogs online." The Alliance was composed of "all Chinese Internet users with strong patriotism." The Alliance posted the URL of more than 300 Japanese government websites, over 100 Japanese Cabinet members’ email addresses, as well as a dozen most effective hacker tools and detailed explanations on how to attack Japanese websites.
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The Fifth Attack: on Japanese Websites in 2001

In the new century, a series of incidents severely damaged the Sino-Japanese relationship. These incidents enraged the Chinese hackers, who vindictively continued attacking the Japanese websites. Japanese government officials had to admit that due to increased Internet protests, the number of attacks on the Japanese websites had surged dramatically. In the first five months of 2001, there were 650 politically motivated website attacks, compared to a mere 63 attacks in the entire year of 2000.

The first wave of attacks happened in February. Honker Union of China (HUC), announced that an assault on Japanese websites would start at 6 p.m., February 16, 2001, and last for one week. It would include the government sites and other major and important websites, as well as important DNS systems. In the following two weeks, Japanese companies admitted that more than 70 of their websites were successfully invaded by the Chinese hackers. Most of them were private businesses such as NTT, West Nippon Printing Co., Dai Nippon Printing Co., a Seiko subsidiary, and Nihon Short-wave Broadcasting Co. Most of the time, the hacked websites were replaced with a display of the PRC national flag.

In March, a new wave of attacks was triggered by the Japanese Text Book incident. This time, Chinese and South Korean hackers attacked the Japanese websites. For example, the websites of the Japanese Ministry of Education, the Ministries of Culture, Sports, and Science and Technology were all forced to shut down, due to the attacks from South Korean hackers. Eventually, the Japanese government had to urge the South Korean government to stop the South Korean hackers.

The attack in August got even fiercer after Prime Minister Koizumi’s August 13 visit to Yasukuni Shrine. (The shrine honors Japans war dead, including convicted war criminals. That the Prime Minister visits it every year has inflamed Sino-Japanese relations. Opponents say that the shrine glorifies Japan’s brutal wartime invasions.) Upon hearing the news, Chinese hackers acted immediately. They defaced some Japanese government websites in protest to the visit. Honker Union of China stated that Koizumi’s visit to the Yasukuni Shrine hurt the feelings of Asians, especially of the Chinese. The previous Textbook incident exasperated them, so they decided to attack Japanese government websites to express their dissatisfaction. In fact, Honker Union of China had already discussed that once Koizumi visited the Yasukuni Shrine, they would use certain methods to attack Japanese websites.

At four o’clock on the afternoon of August 13, the Japan Meteorological Agency’s server was the first to be attacked, followed by the Japan Material Appraisal Research Institute, the Japan Strategic Material Research Center, the Japan Defense System Research Center, Japan’s Department of Intelligence Service Center, Japan’s Fire Department, Japan’s Defense Facility Department, Japan’s Communication Research Lab, and websites of the Japanese Cabinet. Early in the morning on August 14, Honker Union of China issued "a statement about hacker attacks on Japan." It said, "Disregarding protests from Asians and voices for peace from Japan, Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi paid respect to the Yasukuni Shrine, which symbolizes Japanese militarism. The Japanese leader’s wrongful act cruelly hurt the feelings of people from Asian countries, especially those of the Chinese. In addition, when combined with the Textbook incident, it tells us that Japan feels no remorse about its mistakes of World War II. Upon hearing about this visit, Honker Union of China called on some members to discuss countermeasures. Before the Chinese government expressed its condemnation of the Japanese government, we decided to apply what we were good at, to convey a serious protest and the discontent of the young Internet generation to the Japanese new administration and its leader. Honker Union of China (www.redhacker.org) changed the Japanese governments’ homepages during this emergency, in conformity with the spirit of red hackers. Honker Union of China regrets what happened and will be responsible for the attacked homepages. History can’t be neglected, and facts can’t be changed. Retaliation gains respect, and progress is the most important thing."
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The Sixth Attack: on American Websites in April and May 2001

On April 1, 2001, an American surveillance plane collided with a Chinese fighter plane, causing the death of Chinese pilot Wang Wei in the crash. This incident caused indignation throughout China, and created tension between the Bush administration and Beijing. Although on April 11, Beijing allowed the crew to return to the United States, the incident hadn’t been fully resolved. Sino-U.S. relations were still tense. Starting in early April, hackers from both China and the United States started to attack each other. For instance, the American hacker organization "poizonB0x" was one of the major forces to attack Chinese websites. An American hacker named "Pr0phet" stated clearly, "At first, I randomly chose websites to attack. Now my target will be websites ending with .edu.cn and ac.cn or .cn." Under such tension, Chinese hackers started a large-scale campaign, "the Sixth Cyberspace Defense War," between April 30 and May 8. (May 8 was the second anniversary of the NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia.) As for the results of this China-U.S. cyber war, different media had different assessments. According to the head of the Honker Union of China, up until May 7, over 1,600 American websites were attacked, including over 900 government and military websites. Over 1,100 China websites were hacked into, 600 of which were important sites. In fact, each cyber war can’t be publicly declared in advance, nor can a formal end be declared.

The Characteristics of Chinese Hackers

In this cyber war between Chinese and American hackers, six unique aspects are worth noting:

1. Chinese Hackers Had an Excuse for Launching the Attack

The Honker Union of China (HUC) was the eye-catching, principle player in this round of attacks, making the term "honker" once again triumphant. On December 1, 2000, Lion, the head of the Honker Union in China, suggested standardizing the English translation of "hong-ke" to "honker." He argued that if the word honker (for red hacker) was accepted in the English language, it would really mean a lot. It would make it more convenient for honkers to communicate and collaborate worldwide. More importantly, it would further "increase the honkers’ influence, strengthen cohesion and promote honker culture and its development."

It is evident that by promoting the new word "honker," the Chinese hackers were trying to give a positive image to their acts. Even though some Chinese hackers defaced the U.S. websites with abusive language to convey discontent, the majority used the Chinese national flag, the Chinese anthem and slogans, such as "Long Live the Great Chinese Nation," "The United States must be fully responsible for the crash of the airplanes," and "Object to the United States selling weapons to Taiwan, damaging world peace." This behavior was in accordance with their attached purpose: "Support the unification of the country; safeguard the sovereignty of the nation; fight together against foreign provocation; attack anti-China hostile forces."
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2. Chinese Hackers Are Capable of Coordinating a Group Attack

Honker Union of China, China Hacker Alliance, and China Eagle Alliance were major players in attacking the U.S. websites. Having formed an organizational foundation during the previous attacks, they were able to initiate an organized group attack in this round, and bring to the battlefield newcomers who were still not adept at hacking techniques. For example, at 7 p.m. on April 30, the Honker Union of China held a cyber meeting, "orientation for attacking U.S. websites," providing a professional database to deface U.S. websites. On May 7, Chinese hackers organized a group attack on the White House homepage, with a claimed group of 80,000 hacker participants. In the aftermath, a White House spokesperson admitted that a massive volume of data surged in at the same time, paralyzing the connection between the White House homepage and its Internet service provider. The concentrated attack from Chinese hackers and its great coordination made the United States believe that the Chinese government at least acquiesced in this matter, even if it did not claim to have supported it. Pingkefu, a Canadian military critic and senior analyst of Kanwa Intelligence Review, called the attack by Chinese hackers a "new people’s war" (Asian Weekly, May 13, 2000). It acknowledged that the main body of the war was the sheer volume of people, or the "civilian soldier in an information network war," the weapons were computers, the destructive power was knowledge and technology, and the battlefield was the cyberspace network.

3. Chinese Hackers Consist of Young People

As per media reports, the head of the China Eagle Alliance, nicknamed "Old Eagle," is 30 years old. The head of the Honker Union of China, "Lion," is only 21 years old. The spokesperson of the HUC, "Bkbll," is also 21, and he is a college student who is not majoring in computer science. "Bkbll" claimed that the mean age of HUC members was younger than age 23, as previously reported by the media, and 65% of the registered members were college students.

Various surveys conducted by the Chinese Internet Information Center (CNNIC) show that most of the Chinese Internet users are young people under 30. In a most recent survey that ended on December 31, 2000, the center determined the percentage of users in each age group: 41.18% between ages 18 and 24, 18.8% between ages 25 and 30, and 14.93% under 18. In other words, the age group between 18 and 30 accounted for 75% of the total Internet users of 22.5 million. The number of Internet users in China is expected to reach 200 million in 2005, about 15% of the total Chinese population. With such a massive young Internet user group in China, their behavior will have a very profound impact domestically and internationally.

This Internet generation (born after 1970 through the 1980s) grew up in a social environment different from the older generation. Their knowledge and abilities are different from their parents, as are their values. However, a paragraph in an open letter to the American president from the China Eagle Alliance is revealing: "During the past 100 years, China’s calendar was full of hardships and grudges. We forever appreciate those who consoled us; we will never forget those who put salt on our wounds. We, the next generation, grew up eating fast food at KFC and McDonalds. Going to theaters to view an exciting Hollywood movie each month has already become a habit for many Chinese. While our parents’ generation deeply worries about such things, interestingly, it’s you guys who woke us up."
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4. Chinese Hackers Enjoy Popular Approval in China

During the cyber war between Chinese and American hackers, some online surveys were conducted on the Internet. Even though this kind of survey is not truly scientific, it provides a quick indication of popular thought and trends. Table 1 summarizes the results of four such surveys on the Chinese websites:

The surveys showed the prevalent acknowledgment in China of the Chinese hackers’ attack. Of course, the survey’s questions could have influenced the outcome. For example, SINA net (Sina.com.cn) had only three questions that were biased in favor of the attacks. On the other hand, Netease (163.com) had seven questions, only one of which was in favor of attacks.

5. The China-U.S. Cyber War Drew Multinational Participants

Due to the borderless nature of network communication, the China-U.S. cyber war quickly became an Internet "world war," with multinational "troops." As reported by Taiwan’s China Times, "The China-U.S. cyber war is horrifying, and is starting to involve hackers from Europe, Central and South America, Asia, and Arabic countries: each group choosing its side to aid. Hackers from Malaysia, Pakistan, Brazil, Argentina and India obviously stood on the American side. Hackers from South Korea, Japan and Indonesia sympathized with China. The famous hacker organization in Europe, the WOH (World of Hell), joined the war, without favoring either side. They searched the Internet, attacking websites with loopholes." Some media even explicitly explained how Russian hackers helped Chinese hackers to attack American websites, but Chinese hackers denied the report (Editor’s note: technically it’s hard to determine the place of origin of skillful hackers.)

This situation caused a chaotic cyber war. Many non-political websites in various countries were attacked for no reason. Many hackers, especially beginners, went to such extremes as to deface homepages and alter databases whenever they found a website with security loopholes. In doing so, they applied and tested out their skills. Hacking without any reason will only have a negative influence. During this China-U.S. cyber war, even the academic sites of journalism and communication weren’t exempt. I logged into the major journalism academic site of Taiwan (http://ccs.nccu.edu.tw) on the morning of May 13. After clicking on the link to that homepage, the opened page read, "Fuck the U.S. Government Fuck PoizonBOx." This was the first time I clicked on a defaced homepage.
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6. The China-U.S. Cyber War Triggered Debates on Hacking

The cyber war between American and Chinese hackers led to an intense debate over the Chinese Internet. The debate focused on two issues: Is it meaningful and is it lawful? On May 5, 2001, a commentary was published on the official website of People’s Daily (www.people.com.cn), entitled, "Hacker or Honker, Both Bring Harm to the Internet Order." The article sent out a calm, rational and balanced voice from mainstream media at a time when the majority was "feverish." It stated, "Putting aside the patriotic enthusiasm of the Chinese red hackers or the hegemonic actions of the Americans, let’s comment only on the hacking itself. We have to admit that the behavior of wantonly attacking and sabotaging websites, regardless of whether by Chinese red hackers or by American black hackers, is inexcusably illegal. It is no exaggeration to call this behavior cyber terrorism, which threatens Internet security." However, this article drew lots of opposition, making the debate even more volatile.

I am not trying to cover all the issues of hacking here. I believe that in terms of the Internet’s influence on international relations and politics, both sides have gained inspiration from this China-U.S. cyber war. "From the U.S. point of view, it has roughly three effects: 1) it reminds the United States to pay attention to China on Internet security issues; 2) it provides better excuses for the FBI to lobby for more authority over Internet surveillance; and 3) it has sounded the alarm for the potential of extreme Chinese nationalism." From the Chinese point of view, its effects were similar. First, since most of the hardware and software comes from the United States, and China is far behind in terms of Internet security, China has to catch up quickly to avoid losing the future real cyber war. Second, China has to have a capability for cyber attack and cyber defense that is comparable to that of other countries, because in the future, whoever possesses the threat, and actual capability, of conducting a cyber war is the one who will be able to dominate international affairs.

Source:http://www.blogchina.com/new/display/64775.html

The Red Hackers Chinese Youth Infused with Nationalism

The story of the "red hackers" in China is the recounting of massive attacks on foreign governments’ websites between 1998 and 2002. The targets include the websites of the U.S. Air force, U.S. Navy, NATO institutions, the Japanese government, the Indonesian government, and Taiwan. According to Mr. Min Dahong, the Director of the Network and Data Media Research Center in the Institute of Journalism and Communication at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, thousands of websites were broken into, and in some cases, computer systems were paralyzed. Damage caused by the hackers’ attacks is estimated to amount to millions of dollars.

While many criticized the red hackers’ actions, 84% of Chinese Internet users, as well as some of the Chinese official newspapers, applauded them. One article, published on March 2, 2005, in the Chinese Youth Daily, one of the most influential Chinese newspapers directly controlled by the Central Youth League, said that, "…the Red Hacker’s Alliance was only using advanced technology to express their loyalty to their country on their own initiative and expressing their sense of belonging to a nationon this note, any mockery to them is shallow." The article went on to say, "Who knows, one of them may become a national hero making a great contribution to our country and people in the years to come! After all, in order to become a national hero, the basic requirement is to love this nation with passion."

This report helps us trace the history of the Chinese Internet generation and their understanding of nationalism.

The Red Hackers

Hackers don’t have a good reputation nowadays. They invade other people’s computer systems without permission, interfere with other people’s work, steal data, cause damage, and commit criminal acts. Nevertheless, in the Chinese language, hackers are grouped into different categories: "hei-ke" literally means, "black guest," and "hong-ke" literally means "red guest." The red hackers proposed "honker" for their "authentic" English translation of "hong-ke."

The fact that they put "red" in front of "hackers" reflects that these Chinese teenagers label themselves as faithful nationalists and engage in politically motivated hacking attacks against foreign entities in the name of protecting the national interest of China. Unlike ordinary hackers who do not want to publicize their actions for fear of reprisal, the red hackers are eager to show off their victories against "foreign enemies."

While they enjoy cheers from their peers in China, they do not like to be called "black guests." Since the Communist Party worships the color red and uses red flags to represent the Party as well as the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Chinese nationalist hackers coined the term "red hackers" to label themselves as revolutionaries instead of law-violating criminals.
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The Chinese red hackers first made their name in the Chinese media in August 1998 by launching Internet attacks against Indonesian websites. During the three years between 1998 and 2001, the red hackers made six massive attacks: twice against Japan, twice against the United States, once against Indonesia, and once against Taiwan.

The Chinese red hackers have their own organizations and websites, such as the Hacker Union of China (www.cnhonker.com), the China Eagle Union (www.chinaeagle.org), and the Red Hacker’s Alliance (www.redhacker.org). The Hacker Union of China (HUC) was founded on December 31, 2000, and is the largest and earliest hacker group in China. It had 80,000 registered members at its peak, and reportedly has 20,000 members after regrouping in April 2005. These hacker organizations conduct Internet security business, but they are more famous for their hacking attacks than for business activities. According to the Xinhua News Agency, strong support from some Chinese organizations in North America made it possible to form the Red Hacker’s Alliance, an alliance for red hacker organizations. The Hacker Union of China is the largest organization in the Red Hacker’s Alliance.

The Red Hacker’s Alliance reported that 65% of the registered members were college students. The head of the Alliance (nicknamed Lion) is only 21 years old. About 100 million people are wired to the Internet in China. More than half are male and under the age of 25. It appears that these young and educated Chinese Internet users readily embrace the approach of using the power of the Internet to express extreme nationalism.

All six of the Internet attacks were triggered by some political events. The red hackers claimed that they were only reacting and their only purpose was to "defend the national interests." On the website of the "Chinese hacker emergency meeting center" formed during one of the attacks, it was stated, "We firmly support the position of the Chinese government and Communist Party of China. We will not leave behind any trace of evidence. The public security department can rest assured that we only use the images which will represent the entire Chinese people to replace the NATO military home page."

The Promotion of Nationalism in China

Chinese students have been at the forefront of new ideas. In April 1989, university students in Beijing, after some meeting and debating on campus, marched on Beijing’s streets to demand freedom and democracy. This year in April, tens of thousands of angry Chinese, many of them young university students, again marched on the streets in several major cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, and Shenzhen. However, this time the students had a very different purpose from that of 16 years ago.

Back in 1989, the student movement in Beijing was triggered by the death of Hu Yaobang, the then General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and a symbol of reforming Party politics before the Party elders forced him to resign. The students received wide support from Beijing citizens as well as Party reformers, but were labeled by the Party Central Committee as intending to cause "disorder and riots." The standoff between the Beijing students and the CCP lasted for about a month, and ended with the June 4th Tiananmen Massacre, which shocked the world’s people who saw the bloodshed on television.
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The marches this year were against Japan, to protest its text book revision that distorted the history of the Japanese invasion of China, and to protest its seeking a permanent position in the U.N. Security Council. The Communist government did not use brutal force to crack down on the protesters. Instead, the government was behind the organized marches, an accusation backed by many march observers and participants. Later, seeing protesters voicing complaints about the Chinese government in their marches and fearing that a wider spread of the anti-Japan protest could turn into an anti-government protest, the Communist authorities ordered a ban on any marches that were not "pre-authorized." According to Voice of America (VOA) reports, in the last week of April the authorities started to detain and arrest those who continued to call for more protests.

Between the 1989 and 2005 events is a big contrast that can hardly be missed. The freedom-loving and democracy-seeking Beijing students who bravely faced the approaching People’s Liberation Army (PLA) tanks in 1989 have been replaced by an Internet generation who are willing and eager to act as pawns in the Party’s anti-Japanese "struggle." This might be shocking to those who placed their hopes on the Internet for changing China to a free country. The change, however, has been going on for years. Public sentiment did not change overnight in China. The promotion and rise of this Chinese nationalism followed the needs of the CCP.

The pro-America era of the 80s came to an end following the June 4th Massacre. In a full decade before that, the nation was eagerly learning from the United States, truly on its way toward a modern nation through opening up and reform. After the Cultural Revolution, the reform-minded Party leaders, represented by Deng Xiaoping, Hu Yaobang, and Zhao Ziyang, felt in debt to the people, because they knew that in its 30 years in power the Communist Party had let China fall into one social and economic disaster after another. The prosperous and good living that the Communists promised to the Chinese was never realized. After the Third Session of the Eleventh General Assembly of the Party in 1979, Deng and his reform-minded comrades decided to abandon the Soviet system and started to adapt the American ways of management. To keep up with the process of "modernization," the whole nation was eager to learn English and read translated American books for ideas. Textbooks and tapes for teaching English were in high demand. Many young people tuned in to the VOA to learn authentic oral English. In the late 80s, the technological and language driven learning led people to be open minded toward democracy and liberty, especially in the universities and among intellectuals. The pro-democracy forces struggled with the Communist ideologists and autocrats. Sadly, they lost in the early summer of 1989.

In the era after the Tiananmen Massacre, despite the diplomatic and economic sanctions enforced by the Western democratic countries, China did not fully revert to its Soviet tradition. Deng Xiaoping knew clearly that the Soviet way was a dead end. He was determined to further reform the economy without compromising the Party’s rule. When faced with resistance inside the Party, Deng traveled in 1992, despite his ailing health condition, to Shenzhen and Guangzhou to call on the people for furthering the economic reform. The quick collapse of the Communist regimes in East Europe and in Russia in the early 90s shocked the CCP and it had to find something to hang on to. Nationalism was naturally picked up by the Party to reinforce its legitimacy.
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The nationalism promoted by the CCP had a name"revolutionary patriotism" or "patriotism" for short. It is astutely designed to interweave different concepts together. For example, "love the Party and love the country" is often used as a single phrase in Chinese education and in state propaganda; it bundles the Communist Party and China together. The Communist-style nationalism has been blended into the Party rhetoric, educational textbooks, and even into the everyday language. For a second example, the Party uses "new China" to refer to Chinese history after 1949, when the Communist Party took power; and it refers to contemporary history before 1949 as "old China." In the textbooks, "old China" is marked with failure, foreign invasion, and humiliation. The students who study history from the point of view of the Party naturally accumulate hate and anger toward foreign "imperial power." In contrast, "new China" is marked with success and pride. Chairman Mao’s famous speech made in Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949, "the Chinese people have now stood up," is used to mark the separation between the "old" and "new" China. The usage of "new China" and "old China" has become part of the Chinese language among Mainlanders, and it reinforces the fairytale each time people use these terms.

Chinese nationalism has two key components: hate and pride. People are reminded never to forget the humiliation and suffering brought by foreign imperialism to the Chinese people in "old China." This is the component of hate. People are also told that, "Only the Communist Party can save China." The improved living standards and economic development in two decades of reform are constantly used to prove "the greatness, the glory, and the correctness" of the Chinese Communist Party, while ignoring the various atrocities that the Party has brought upon the nation in the past one half century. The Party maintains that China under Communist leadership will become the greatest country in the world. The phrase that "the 21st century is China’s century" creates euphoria in the younger generation. This is the component of pride and ignorance.

When Deng Xiaoping was still alive, he told China to keep a low profile and not get into trouble with strong powers. Seeing the collapse of the Communist Bloc in East Europe and Russia, he left four strategic instructions for the Chinese Communists to survive. First one was, "Don’t argue any more," meaning the Communist theory had lost completely so better not to talk about it. Second, "It’s a dead end if (you) do not reform," admitting that the socialist practice had been a complete failure. Third, "Development is the absolute truth," meaning the past ideological struggles were anything but useful. His fourth strategy was the most famous and yet laughably ridiculous, "Cross the river by feeling for stones along the river-bed." Deng Xiaoping, by saying China had to feel its way, recognized the total failure of Communism, but he did not admit it nor did he want to accept Western democracy.

Jiang Zemin was picked to be the Party leader in 1989, but he did not get full control until the mid-90s when Deng Xiaoping became seriously ill. In order to gain support from the army generals, Jiang changed course on foreign policy and increased military spending. Deng’s foreign policy was "bu-chu-tou," meaning "Do not take leadership positions in international affairs in order to avoid becoming a target." Deng’s ambition was for China to become a truly developed country, and to do so it needed to avoid colliding with strong powers such as United States. During the first Gulf War in the early 90s when Deng was still advising the Party about foreign affairs, China did not show any strong opinions. However, after Deng became very ill and later died in 1996, Jiang Zemin took China on a more confrontational path.
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In 1996 right before the Taiwan presidential election, the PLA launched long-range missiles just off the Taiwan seashore in an attempt to threaten Taiwan. During the Kosovo War in the spring of 1999, Jiang ordered the Chinese military to cooperate with the Yugoslavian dictator Slobodan Milosevic. Chinese agents in Belgrade helped Serbs in intelligence gathering and tested Chinese devices for electronic warfare. When that led to the NATO missile bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in April 1999, Jiang seized the opportunity to incite anti-America sentiment in China. University students were bused to the American Embassy in Beijing to throw rocks and eggs into the Embassy. Although this way of revenge appeared unwise in international affairs, it was an effective political move for Jiang Zemin. The more people are angry with Americans, the less likely they will be to demand freedom and democracy. That event occurred almost exactly 10 years after the pro-democracy student movement in Beijing. It marked the success of the Chinese Communist Party in turning the Chinese students from pro-democracy to anti-America. The rising influence of Chinese nationalism became very clear from that time on.

The Right to Know: the Failure of the Internet in China

Even though the Internet is a great tool for spreading free ideas and for getting people informed, the Communist government has blocked the Chinese Internet of those functions. As recently reported by CNN, the Chinese government has the final word on what falls under the Chinese cyber-curtain. Internet users in China are routinely blocked from websites featuring politically taboo topics such as Taiwan independence, the Dalai Lama, Falun Gong, and the Tiananmen Square massacre.

The government has numerous state agencies policing the Internet, with help from the private sector. Major Chinese search engines filter content by keyword and remove taboo search results, blog providers remove politically sensitive posts, and cyber-cafes monitor Internet usage by customers. The most advanced information technology that has been eagerly sold to the Communist government by the American high-tech companies, sadly, is helping the Communist Party to manipulate the Internet and to turn the Chinese youth into anti-American extreme nationalists.

In this information age, the Chinese Internet generation is still living in the illusion created by the Communist Party. Taking the Boxer Rebellion as an example, the red hacker generation believes they and the Boxer movement are both "patriotic groups" that live in different historic times. The Communist Party has distorted history according to the Party’s need. It thus should not be a surprise if history repeats itself-when the "patriotic" red hackers turn into destructive Boxers against the "foreign enemies."

The six episodes of the Chinese hackers attacking foreign websites in the name of protecting China’s interests, documented in detail by Mr. Min Dahong on page 12, reveal the history of the rise of the Chinese red hackers along with the rise of Chinese nationalism. The questions and answers in a Xinhua online interview (see page 24), offer an opportunity to look at the mindset of the lost Chinese Internet youth who have turned themselves into Internet terrorists for the sake of "patriotism."

Leon Chao is a commentator on Sino-U.S. relations.

Overseas Chinese Rally to Support Mainlanders Renouncing Their CCP Membership

Ever since The Epoch Times newspaper published the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, the demand for an open and upright way of renouncing Chinese Communist Party (CCP) memberships has emerged among Mainlanders. The Epoch Times newspaper has launched a website to address this need. With about 20,000 joining the ranks of those renouncing their CCP membership each day, the number quickly reached the one million milestone on April 21, 2005,and continues to climb. As of May 5, 2005, over 1.3million people had renounced their CCP memberships via the Chinese-language website at http://tuidang.dajiyuan.com/.

In the past, such phenomena were never thought possible due to the iron grip of the CCP. As the number grows larger, more and more people are starting to walkout of the fear. Mainlanders who appeal to the Beijing government for rights protection held homemade banners to welcome that more than 1 million renounced the CCP (see picture below). In support of those who have risked their jobs, social status, or even their lives to renounce the CCP, overseas Chinese have launched many forums and rallies in major U.S., European and Australian cities. Among them, the April 23 New York City rally and parade sponsored by 250 organizations attracted more than 4,000 participants. The parade started from Foley Square and ended in front of the Chinese consulate.

The CCP is not sitting idle either. One day before the parade, the CCP launched large-scale arrests throughout China, targeting those who have a copy of the book Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party. This has been the largest arrest since July 20, 1999,when the persecution of Falun Gong first started.

Two days before the April 23 parade, the New York Police Department cancelled the permit. According to a person present at the April 21 meeting of parade planners and police department officials, New York Police Patrol Borough Manhattan South Assistant Chief Bruce Smolka told everyone that he checked with the State Department and was told that the parade was not a significant event. A State Department official later told the media that he checked with several China Desk officials, and none of them had a conversation with NYPD. One of the planners of the parade, Ms. Zhou, believes it is probably an attempt by the CCP, as it is not normal for the State Department to interfere with affairs of state and local authorities. With the help of New York Congressmen and parade participants, the planners had their permit restored the night before the parade.

The planners of the rally and parade signed a contract on April 19 for an advertisement of the New York activity on April 21 and 22 in the World Journal, a Chinese newspaper with a Taiwan background. On the morning of April 21, the World Journal asked if planners could remove the words, "renouncing the CCP." Upon refusal, World Journal cancelled the advertisement. The planners have requested the World Journal to provide a written explanation of their reason for canceling the contract. As of May 6, no written explanation had been received.
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Middle To Grassroots Level CCP Cadres Responded To A Survey

A survey team conducted a survey among 100 middle to grassroots level CCP cadres in relation to the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party and renouncing CCP memberships. The survey team has asked to remain anonymous for security reasons. The following are the survey results:

Among the 17 officials who have read the Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party, 11 of them thought it was a verdict on the CCP, and that it was well written. As for the current CCP campaign of "maintaining the vanguard nature of the CCP," all the100 officials thought that it was just telling and listening to lies in groups. The result is "the top deceives the bottom, the bottom deceives the top, you fool me and I fool you, everyone cheats the central government, and the central government cheats everyone."

From the Editor

April was an eventful month in China. Following closely on the heels of the anti-secession law, a wave of anti-Japanese sentiment arose across major cities in China. Students and young people marched to protest against Japan for its government’s callous treatment of World War II in their textbooks, applying for a permanent position in the United Nations’ Security Council, as well as the Japanese Prime Minister paying tribute to the war shrine, among other affronts.

In China, unauthorized demonstrations are against the law and strictly prohibited. Unless organized or encouraged by the government, there is simply no chance to get permission for a demonstration of any scale. As such, the majority of demonstrations in China have been immediately suppressed by armed police or military personnel, except for those regarded as "patriotic actions." The current one clearly belongs to the latter category in the eyes of the Central Government, and government manipulation behind the scenes is palpable. In the grand scheme of things, the current game is more than likely an extension of the anti-secession law in playing the nationalism card.

In the past, the CCP once had been successful in controlling its people with the Communist ideology, in part because of its control of informationthe people truly did not know any better. After China opened its doors to the West in the early 1980s, this strategy gradually lost its effectiveness. Today, few, including the Communist Party members, still have faith in the Communist doctrine. After the 1989 student democracy movement, the CCP realized the imminent, dire danger of losing ideological control and shifted its efforts toward fanning nationalism among the people, particularly the younger generation. During the NATO bombing of China’s Embassy in Yugoslavia in 1999, the Chinese leadership saw the power and viability of this strategy. Angry youths were shuttled to embassies and consulates in China, leaving smashed windows and damaged buildings following demonstrations. Today, what we are seeing is a continuation of the nationalist game that has been meticulously orchestrated over the years.

In this issue, we feature articles that will help illustrate the nationalist play by the CCP, including Chinese hackers’ attacks against "enemy targets" such as the United States, Japan and Taiwan, all of which are being tacitly encouraged by the Chinese government.

With opposition leaders from Taiwan being invited to visit the Mainland one after another, the Chinese media has kicked into high gear. We will cover this topic in more depth in upcoming issues.

News Briefs

Foreign Species Invading China Cause $US6.9 Billion in Damage Each Year 

[Xinhuanet report, May 18, 2005] More than 400 species not native to China have invaded the country. Characterized by their huge populations, rapid propagation, and reproduction unchecked by natural enemies, these species are causing enormous losses to Chinese agricultural and forestry industries. It is estimated that the economic loss due to these nonindigenous species amounts to 57 billion yuan (US$6.9 billion) each year.

The most recent statistics from the Agriculture Ministry of China shows that at least 380 foreign plant species, 40 animal species, and 23 microbes have aggressively invaded China. Their establishment in China has severely damaged local agriculture and the ecosystem. A researcher at the Plant Protection Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences says that nonindigenous species are invading almost everywhere in China. Thus far, these invading species have been found in all Chinese provinces, administrative regions and cities. This researcher explained that the pine nematode, scale, the caterpillar moth, and other forest insects have infested 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of land.

Exorbitant College Tuition Frightens Farmers’ Children in China

[China Youth Daily report, May 11, 2005] College education is exacting increasingly high tuition and fees in mainland China. This worries more and more families whose children are graduating from high school. The government research center at Jilin Province conducted a survey at a high school in its Farm Serenity County. The result showed that as many as 28.7% of students who participated in the survey expressed their fear of not being able to enroll in college because their families could not afford the "exorbitant" tuition and fees for a college education.

"Falling into poverty because of the expense of higher education" has become one of the toughest hardships in China’s countryside, where more than two-thirds of the 1.3 billion Chinese reside. It is reported that a farmer’s average net income in Jilin was 3,000 yuan (US$361) in 2004. In contrast, tuition and fees for a college student averages around 11,800 yuan (US$1,422) per year. As a result, once their children get admitted into college after years of hard work and passing a highly competitive standard examination, parents have to borrow a lot. Half of these families have to "raise money" through high-interest loans. More worrisome is the unfair and sluggish job market that these farmers’ children have to face upon graduation from college.{mospagebreak} 

Taiwan President Questions the Sincerity of Communist China’s Gifts

[China Broadcast News, May 9, 2005] After Lien Chan, president of Taiwan’s opposition Kuomintang or National party, visited China, the mainland presented three gifts to Taiwan: a panda, a tariff exemption for agricultural imports from Taiwan, and mainland tourists to Taiwan. President Chen Shui-bian expressed his concern about these gifts in light of the Communists’ previous sly treatment of Taiwanese businessmen. Chen cautioned Taiwan farmers to be careful in reacting to the tariff exemption for exports of Taiwan agricultural products to China. He expressed that Taiwan farmers should not get trapped there to become "farm slaves." As far as the panda is concerned, this gift should be reviewed under the international convention of endangered species. President Chen also voiced concern that mainland tourists to Taiwan might try to stay illegally in Taiwan, and that if they were sincere, they should take back the 2,000 illegal immigrants detained in Taiwan. "A good talk should also be conducted between the governments," says Chen.

 
China Has the Highest Number of Computers Manipulated by Hackers

[Voice of America report, May 9, 2005] Cybertrust, a network security service company based in Virginia, reports that more and more unprotected computers in China are manipulated by hackers as more Chinese go online. These online computers could be used as bases for cyber-attacks.

According to statistics from its most recent survey, Cybertrust revealed that an average of 150,700 computers were hijacked daily by hackers. Computers coming from China account for one-fifth of them. China as a nation is experiencing the fastest increase of network users and the total network accounts are close to 100 million. Unfortunately, China also suffers from the biggest increase in hacker activities due to a lack of education on network security.

 
Tiananmen Square Closed on May 4 To Prevent Student and Anti-Japanese Demonstrations

[The Epoch Times report, May 4, 2005] Beijing’s Tiananmen Square was closed to the public on Wednesday for a government-organized coming-of-age ceremony for the 18-year-olds, an apparent attempt to thwart any student demonstrations. Wednesday marked the 86th anniversary of the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and also of the beginning of the student democracy protests on May 4, 1989. There was concern that protesters would gather in Beijing.

This move was also intended to prevent a new round of anti-Japanese demonstrators from gathering on the Square. Police were all told to withhold their leave and were put on full alert to monitor sensitive locations and university campuses. Similarly, university officials warned the students that their registration would be revoked if they participate in demonstrations.{mospagebreak}

 
Chongqing Qijiang Coal Mine Sells Adulterated Coal Mixed with Gangue

[The Epoch Times, May 4, 2005] Recently, due to the energy shortage, the price of coal for generating electric power has soared in China. The huge price difference drives some coal suppliers to illegally mix coal with gangue powder. Coal adultery at the Qijiang coal mine is so rampant that 6 tons of gangue was mixed into 10 tons of coal.

Gangue is a byproduct of coal mining. With a grayish black color, gangue is very similar to coal in appearance but somewhat heavier than coal. It contains very little combustible material and therefore is much cheaper than coal. Regulation requires that gangue can only be used in designated power plants. Some is used in making brick and tile.

 
Authorities in Hebei Disband Underground Church Study Group

[Voice of America report, April 28, 2005] Chinese authorities disbanded a church study group, organized by eight Roman Catholic priests in Zhengding, Hebei Province. It was reported that the Chinese government tightened control over underground Catholics in China after Pope John Paul II passed away. The study group mainly studied Catholic rituals and mourned Pope John Paul II. They also prayed for the new Pope Benedict XVI and for a good relationship between the Vatican and China.

The study group met at the Wuqiu Church of Jingzhou City associated with Cardinal Jia Zhiguo, who is recognized by the Vatican. There are 60,000 to 70,000 underground Catholics in his church district. Due to his allegiance to the Vatican, Chinese authorities have continuously monitored or even jailed Cardinal Jia.

 
China Launches Large-Scale Arrests Before Implementing New "Petition Rule"

[The Epoch Times report, April 29, 2005] China Human Rights received a report from mainland China indicating that before May 1 (a national holiday in China), large-scale arrests, detention, and beating of petitioners occurred in Beijing, Shanghai, the Northeast, and many other provinces before the implementation of a new "Petition Rule." Places where petitioners stayed were searched and cleared. It is said that this is a coordinated effort by the government to implement a new Petition Rule, minimizing the number of petitioners as well as stabilizing the "social order" during the "May 1 International Labor Day" holiday.{mospagebreak}

 
Japan Intercepted Chinese Military Aircraft 13 Times Last Year

[Liberty Times report, May 2, 2005] An official from the Japanese Defense Bureau said that Japanese air defense forces intercepted Chinese military aircraft as many as 13 times last year. In 2003 there were only two such incidents. This official revealed, on condition of remaining anonymous, that several among those Chinese military aircrafts invading Japanese air space were reconnaissance planes. These Chinese aircraft left immediately upon interception and there was no serious confrontation. Chinese naval vessels also infringed on Japanese territorial waters and alerted Japan’s self-defense force.

 
Beijing Strengthens Economic and Trade Relations with Southeast Asian Countries

[The Epoch Times, April 27, 2005] Hu Jintao arrived in Manila, Philippines, on April 26 for a three-day visit and announced a US$300 million low-interest loan to the Philippines. The money will be used to construct railroads connecting Manila and the provinces in Northern China. The project is expected to create 17,000 jobs for the Philippines. Chinese iron and steel companies will also sign an agreement of a US$800 million investment plan in the Philippines. In addition, following the meeting of Hu Jintao and Indonesian President Susilo the previous Sunday in Jakarta, China and Indonesia signed nine bilateral agreements, including agreements on strengthening bilateral trade, investment, and maritime affairs cooperation.

 
Dalai Lama: Young Panchen Lama Still Under House Arrest

[BBC report, April 26, 2005] April 25 was the 16th birthday of the Tibetan spiritual "Holy Boy," Gedhun Choekyi Nyima. The Dalai Lama confirmed that the Chinese government still has Gedhun Choekyi Nyima under house arrest, making him the youngest political prisoner in the world. Many Tibetans expressed their anger toward the atheist Chinese government for its blatant interference with their religious freedom. Beijing authorities have used Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, the Tenth Panchen Lama reincarnated as a young boy, as a chess piece against the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama confirmed that Gedhun Choekyi Nyima is the second most important spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism, the reincarnated Panchen Lama. But Beijing refused the arrangement and picked its own version of a "young Panchen Lama." After Gedhun Choekyi Nyima disappeared, the China State Council announced that he was being "protected" by the Chinese government. Beijing refuses to disclose his whereabouts.{mospagebreak}

 
Corruption Starts at a Younger Age And Embezzlement Is More Direct

[Jing Bao from Hong Kong report, April 25, 2005] An investigation of corruption cases from 2002 to 2004 by Beijing’s Fengtai Court revealed that the main criminal offenders were from the younger generation and that the methods of fraud were more direct. Since 2002, the Fengtai Court has tried 23 embezzlement cases. Among the 25 people involved, 7 people were in their 30s, accounting for 28.6% of the offenders. Nineteen of them were management-level officials, such as factory managers, department managers, chief economists and so on, accounting for 76% of the 23 embezzlement cases.

 
The Chinese Government Intensifies Its Suppression of Falun Gong Once Again

[The Epoch Times report, April 25, 2005] As the sixth anniversary of the suppression of Falun Gong by the Chinese Communist Party is approaching, Chinese Public Security has once again launched a new wave of nationwide cruelty toward Falun Gong. According to the Falun Gong website Minghui April 22 news, the Chinese Government issued a secret document (on red letterhead) in March calling for a nationwide ransacking of the homes of Falun Gong practitioners. The current campaign is a nationwide unified action and is the largest since July 20, 1999. According to a report from Agence France-Presse on April 24, the Beijing public security police stated, "The Chinese Government categorized Falun Gong as an anti-revolutionary political organization," and said "distributing Falun Gong flyers or carrying Falun Gong materials or engaging in any (Falun Gong) related activities is illegal. Anyone who possesses Falun Gong materials must be investigated."

 
China’s "Public Spending" Amounts To 700 Billion Yuan (US$85 Billion) in 2004

[China Economical Times report, April 21, 2005] In 2004, China’s three public spending amounted to 700 billion yuan (US$85 billion), with 300 billion for travel and vehicle expenses, 200 billion for food and wine, and another 200 billion on traveling abroad. (Note: In China, "three public spending" refers to using government money on food and wine, government vehicles, and traveling abroad.){mospagebreak}

Illegal Immigration of Mainlanders to Taiwan Increases Sharply

[The Liberty Times report, April 16, 2005] The Taiwan Coastal Patrol reported at the Land Commission Committee meeting that mainlanders are flooding into Taiwan and some are engaged in illegal activities. Since smuggling oneself across the ocean has become increasingly risky, in recent years smugglers have gradually turned to other avenues (some legal and some illegal) such as arranging a fake marriage, visiting relatives, sightseeing, using fake identification, or disguising themselves as mainland fishermen, to enter Taiwan in order to avoid a security search. This trend is still continuing.

 
Nearly 70% of Chinese Companies Limit Hiring of Female College Graduates

[The Guangzhou Daily report, April 15, 2005] According to statistics, from 1998 to 2002, the number of female graduates from college increased twofold, accounting for 44% of the total student population. A survey in 62 cities by the Labor and Social Security Department showed that 67% of employers are guilty of sex discrimination in their hiring policy, limiting the hiring of female graduates or restricting female employees to no pregnancy during employment. According to a survey among 2005 postgraduate students in a university, over 70% of the students believed that an employer would consider male graduates first. This indicates that female college graduates are facing a tougher job market.

 
Shortage of 6 Billion Cubic Meters Of Water in China’s Urban Area Reported

[Xinhuanet report, March 22, 2005] Vice Minister Qiu Baoxing of the Chinese Construction Ministry said that in China’s urban areas, the water shortage amounts to 6 billion cubic meters. More than 100 cities above the county level in 11 provinces and metropolitan regions are experiencing a water shortage. The water supply is severely strained in 56% of these cities. China only has one-fourth of the water resources per capita of the world. The situation is further worsened by uneven distribution of the water resources and by water pollution.

Reports on North Korea Leaders

South Korea Positively Assesses Kim II Sung’s Contribution Made During the War against Japan; Becomes “Hot on Kim Jong II”

Source: Xinhuanet, April 28, 2005

According to media reports, in preparation of the 60th anniversary of the Korean Peninsula’s independence from Japan, South Korea has shown signs of interest in re-evaluating historical figures. One issue that stands out is how to evaluate the role of the deceased North Korean President Kim II Sung, who organized and led the guerrilla resistance against the invasion of Japan.

Kim II Sung: Also a "Hero Against Japanese Occupation"

A famous South Korea historian pointed out last week that Kim II Sung once rebelled against Japanese colonialism: "It is a historical fact. The fight led by Kim II Sung against the Japanese occupation should be considered part of the national independence movement." Although some conservatives opposed historians’ viewpoint, it actually gained the acknowledgment of most historians. South Koreans, who know history and are not prejudiced, did not raise any objections as well.

If we pushed the clock back to the 90s, one would be surprised to see this happening in South Korea. When Kim II Sung suddenly died in 1994, South Korean President Kim Young Sam refused to send a telegram of condolence to North Korea. Moreover, he even blamed Kim II Sung, which caused North Korea’s strong dissatisfaction, and forced the relationship between North Korea and South Korea into a corner.

However, upon entering the 21st century, things have changed in subtle ways. South Korea has persistently maintained a reconciliation policy toward North Korea, has engaged in economic cooperation with North Korea, and has insisted on solving the nuclear issue through dialogue, and so on. Moreover, changes are also found in evaluating the historical role of North Korean leaders. The assessment of Kim II Sung’s contribution to the resistance against the Japanese occupation is an example.

South Korea "Hot on Kim Jong II"

It is not so strange to have such a situation occur in South Korea. The South Korean public changed their impression of North Korea, especially of Kim Jong II. It started as early as when the summit was held between the North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong II and the incumbent South Korean President Kim Dae-Jung in Pyongyang, where the historical "Common Manifesto between South Korea and North Korea" was signed.
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In the past, under the influence of anti-communist education and ideology, most of the South Koreans had negative opinions of North Korean leaders, and viewed them as "the absolutely irreconcilable enemy." However, after the Summit between North and South Korea, there was a strong, formidable shock to South Korean society. Many people realized that the propaganda of the past about North Korea was "not accurate," was "one-sided" or "twisted." Consequently, a "fever over Kim Jong II" developed in South Korea. Kim Jong II is now considered to be well-behaved, bold and unconstrained, as well as humorous and reasonable. A survey shows that the number of people who hold positive attitudes toward Kim Jong II on his leadership, and trust has risen sharply.

At the same time, some university students even initiated activities on "properly understanding North Korea."

North Korea Is No Longer The "Main Enemy"

After Roh Moo-hyun took office, he has continued to implement the policy of reconciliation and cooperation from the previous government, attempting to improve cooperation with North Korea. In the "White Paper on National Defense" published at the beginning of this year, there was an important change: North Korea is no longer classified as the "main enemy." All of this has subtly changed the public opinion of North Korea.

Last August, South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun spoke during the 59th Anniversary of "August 15th," in commemoration of independence from Japanese occupation. He announced that a committee was to be established, to investigate and clarify the historical truth about those who assisted Japan during the Japanese colonialism period.

Roh Moo-hyun said at that time, "It is not to criticize those who are pro-Japan and anti-Korea, infringe on their vested interest, or turn back history. It is to learn a lesson from history and clarify the truth in order to build the right future."

From then on, a movement to uncover the historical truth surged in South Korea. Some politicians withdrew from the political arena because of it. During this movement, of course "pro-Japanese" forces became the target. However, those who have been buried in history and have not been properly evaluated for their roles in the resistance against Japan have also become the focus of public attention. Kim II Sung’s role against Japanese occupation is a historical fact that cannot be written off. It is only just and righteous for him to receive a proper assessment. Further, on the 60th anniversary commemorating the Korean Peninsula’s independence from Japan, it is only natural to properly evaluate Kim II Sung for his contribution to the resistance against Japan’s occupation.

http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2005-04/28/content_2889425.htm
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North Korea No Longer Places Hopes on Bush Administration

Source: Xinhuanet, April 30, 2005

The spokesman from the North Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed their anger on April 30 in Pyongyang, for the recent speech made by U.S. President Bush, which maliciously attacked the North Korean leader Kim Jong II. The spokesman also stated at the same time that North Korea would no longer hold out any hope in solving the nuclear issue, or improving the relationship between North Korea and the United States during the Bush Administration.

The spokesman indicated to KCNA (Korean Central News Agency) reporters on the same day that North Korea would never tolerate anyone who maliciously attacks the supreme leader of North Korea.

The spokesman said, "As long as Bush is still in power, the world will never have peace, and North Korea will not expect a resolution of the nuclear issue, or that the relationship between North Korea and America will improve." The spokesman also pointed out, "Since Bush took office, North Korea has exercised tolerance and patience for more than four years. Now it is hard to continue to wait for the change of U.S. policy. North Korea will press ahead with the path it has chosen."

http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2005-04/30/content_2901416.htm

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