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The Secret Formula Of the Korean Television Drama D’ Jang Geum

Dae Jang Geum

South Korean movie and television dramas have been popular in Asian countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and China for the past decade. The globalization of Korean TV series and actors has spawned a pop culture called Korean Wave, also known as hallyu, which refers to Korean culture in general, including movies, music, and fashion.

Korean Wave continues to sweep Asian countries and had a massive impact in 2004 with the introduction of the historic television drama Dae Jang Geum (Jewel in the Palace). With its attention to the details of people’s everyday lives, its well-rounded characters, and rich cultural content, Dae Jang Geum has drawn millions of viewers. Fans say they feel as if they are participating in the experiences of the characters.

Korean Wave in Asia

Korean Wave is the national pride of Korea. It introduces the historical Korea to the world and is successfully breaking down historical grudges with neighboring nations. Korean television movies have also boosted South Korea’s economy in the areas of trade and tourism. In 2004, exports of South Korean programs, mostly dramas, totaled US$71.4 million, up 70 percent over 2003, according to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The Korean National Tourism Organization, the state-run tourist association, claims the impact of the TV dramas has brought almost one billion dollars in tourist income to Korea.

Dae Jang Geum made a huge success in Asia after it was first aired in Korea in 2003. With a popular start in Taiwan, the series was enormously successful and received the highest ratings in Hong Kong’s TV history. When the drama aired next on America’s AZN Television, a network company targeting Asian-American viewers, it scored another huge success. Korean Wave, already a cultural phenomenon in Asia, is making its mark worldwide.

According to Asia Times, when the show’s finale played in the San Francisco Bay area, more than 100,000 fans tuned in, landing the show higher ratings in that time slot than ABC’s Extreme Makeover, Warner Brothers’ Starlet, or PBS’ Live from Lincoln Center. In Japan, Dae Jang Geum aired its first episode on October 8, 2005, on NHK.

Korean Wave in China

Since the beginning of Korean Wave (Han Liu) in China in 1993, Dae Jang Geum has pushed the wave to new heights in 2004. Hunan Satellite Television paid 10 million yuan (US$1.2 million) to buy the mainland distribution rights. It purportedly has already doubled its investment by simply reselling the rights to other regional stations. Xinhua News Agency reported on October 17 that the series averages a 3.15 percent rating in 31 medium and large cities, and the number is climbing.
Produced by Korean TV channel MBC in 2003, Dae Jang Geum focuses on the life of Jang Geum, the first female royal physician in the Joseon Dynasty during the reigns of Yeonsangun (1494-1506) and King Jungjong (1506-1544) in Korea. The main themes are Jang Geum’s perseverance and the traditional Korean culture, including Korean royal court cuisine and medicine. Jang Geum was a real person as documented in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and a medical document of the time. However, references to her were few and mostly short.

Chinese fans are glued to this slow-paced Korean show. Besides the appeal of the exquisite Korean court food and fashion, and the beauty of Lee Yong Ae, the actress who plays the title role, fans indicate that the success of Dae Jang Geum is attributed to the deep cultural content of the show.

Freelance writer Shan He has pointed out that the popularity of Dae Jang Geum is not simply about the story of Jang Geum’s suffering, endurance, and triumph over hardship, but rather her purity and her kind, feminine character, especially her compassionate way of resolving conflicts. The show highlights the true nature of humankind and reawakens in viewers the inherent longing for truth, compassion, and tolerance.

Feminine Beauty and Persistence

"It teaches me how to live," one fan wrote on an online Dae Jang Geum discussion forum. Many female fans are delighted to learn the proper demeanor of a woman worthy of admiration — elegance, gentleness, kindness, and respectfulness. They say that beauty shines through the characters in the show, and many female fans say they would like to have those qualities themselves. Fans write about the persistence Jang Geum demonstrates in the face of suffering and tribulations. Her persistence, compassion, righteousness, and dedication to justice, even at the risk of her own life, have great appeal.

In the story, after Jang Geum returned to the palace as a female doctor, she embraced the moral values of a doctor and gave up her hatred towards those who killed her mother and teacher. She insisted on preparing the right type of food to serve the ambassador from the Ming Dynasty who was suffering from diabetes, despite the risk of losing her life if her dishes failed to improve his condition.

As a royal cook, she was taught by her teacher, Lady Han, to always consider the guest’s health when preparing food. She eventually won high praise from the ambassador for her care and steadfastness. Resisting a barrage of conflicting opinions, she insisted on the proper treatment for the king even though she was denigrated as an inexperienced female doctor. When she was offered the chance to spy for the queen, she replied that she was willing to give up her life if necessary but would not do things that were against her principles.
Liu Yajuan, a student from Wuhan University, posted this message online: "Jang Geum is so admirable, but in the real world, people try all kinds of means to survive in society. We stab each other in the back. I truly hope that in our society, we can have as compassionate a heart as Jang Geum to tolerate those around us."

A Classic Love Story

Jang Geum’s love story is classic and subtle. The scenes of her love for Lord Min Jung Ho consist of infrequent eye contact, gentle greetings and smiles, occasional conversation, and a short walk. There are no sex scenes, not even a kiss. But the audience can feel the strong tie between the two. Their unconditional love for each other has elevated to trust, respect, and admiration. When King Jungjong falls in love with Jang Geum but finds out about her love for Lord Min, both Jang Geum and Lord Min demonstrate the courage to acknowledge their relationship. In the end, Jang Geum sacrifices the king’s affection and chooses to follow Lord Min to live a simple but meaningful life.

The love story of Jang Geum has brought the fans tears and laughter as well as the longing for a true and secure relationship in real life. "It is a classic and beautiful love story, one that is long gone in today’s materialistic society. I would like to have a love relationship just like this," one fan wrote.

Respect for Traditional Chinese Culture and Moral Values

Throughout the series, Dae Jang Geum has conveyed the richness of Chinese culture, including Chinese calligraphy, medicine, food, clothing, and ancient systems of governing. The show blends classic tales into the story line that are refreshing and reassuring to Chinese audiences. It also demonstrates the deep influence Chinese culture had on Korea during that time period.

Some fans say that the training Jang Geum received in cooking and medicine illustrates the ancient emphasis on the cultivation of the individual’s moral conduct. In ancient China, all the professions taught people to have a pure heart, high moral values, and an inner understanding or enlightenment.

In one scene, Jang Geum participates in a royal cooking competition. The cooks have to use the food discarded by the commoners in order to show how the country can survive in times of food shortages. Eager to succeed in the contest, Jang Geum adds milk to the beef bone soup for better taste but loses the contest because milk was considered a luxury food, hardly affordable to the common people.
Seeing that Jang Geum has developed complacency, her teacher, Lady Han, tells her, "I would have never guessed that your talent would also become your poison" and sends her out of the palace to think things over. Jang Geum finally learns that having sincerity and diligence is the secret to making delicious food.
When Jang Geum was studying to become a female medical doctor, she was criticized for lacking the basic values as a doctor even though she was the top student in the class. She was perplexed, but upon observation and reflection, she learned that she was thinking too highly of herself and lacked modesty, consideration, and concern for her patients. She also learned that her purpose in studying medicine was tainted as she was seeking a way to take revenge on her enemies. She realized that she lacked the compassion to save people. Fans praise Jang Geum for her high moral standards and express admiration for the high standards of those times.

Chinese Television Industry Confronts The Korean Cultural Invasion

Dae Jang Geum has been a runaway hit in China since it aired in September 2005. Its fans even include Chinese President Hu Jintao and Wu Bangguo, Chairman of the National People’s Congress. The Central News Agency reported on October 2 that since the show’s broadcast in the mainland, it has reached an 18 percent rating with close to 18 million people watching it. China Youth Daily indicated that Chinese people like to watch the show to form their dreams and search for the moral values that have been lost in society.

While Dae Jang Geum has been successful in China, it has also been the object of criticism from the Chinese television movie industry. Zhang Guoli, a famous television star and producer in China, told Sina News that after watching one episode of Dae Jang Geum, he was not touched at all and found the show disturbing. Zhang has produced many historical television dramas in China. He said there were too many loopholes in Jang Geum’s character and that the show was too long and slow. He complained that Chinese audiences are overcritical of Chinese dramas but generous toward Korean dramas. He also expressed concern about the cultural invasion from Korea and asked the media to give Chinese productions more coverage.

Responding to the negative feedback, Jiang Xun, a reporter with the BBC, wrote on October 17, "I personally have not watched any Korean television dramas, nor am I a fan of them. But the popularity of Korean dramas, books, and video games that have made their way into China indicates that they do have appeal and a market."

"Culture is a form of identity for a country," Jiang Xun wrote. "It is very common for a country to create such a cultural influence and phenomenon in neighboring countries, as was witnessed in history during the Tang Dynasty, when Chinese culture had its impact on Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia. When the content of the cultural influence is Chinese culture while the player in the center is Korea, some people feel uneasy and resentful. But Chinese people should think about catching up, becoming an exporter of culture, and regaining China’s reputation."
One fan of Dae Jang Geum said that even though Chinese television drama has matured over the years, with its grand historical scenes, complex story lines, top quality productions, elaborate costumes and stage settings, it still lacks the most important part— uplifting cultural content, which Dae Jang Geum amply provides. Examples abound in the show with such themes as the role of fate in one’s life, retribution for wrong-doing, a king who cares for his people and follows the will of heaven, and the importance of virtues such as truthfulness, kindness, and tolerance.

In China, ruled by an atheist regime, it is almost impossible for such cultural content to thrive because China’s ancient cultural heritage has been attacked and discarded as feudalistic garbage, particularly since the Great Cultural Revolution. Nonetheless, these values still reside in people’s hearts. Dae Jang Geum has simply revived them. This is the secret formula behind the series’ success.

Lukun Yu is a writer based in New York.

P.R.C. Infiltration into Taiwanese Media Questioned Following TVBS Ownership Investigation

On October 29 Government Information Office (GIO) Minister Pasuya Yao said the GIO had sufficient evidence to prove that cable TV station TVBS was a foreign-owned company and therefore breaking the law. On November 8, TVBS was issued a fine of NT$1 million (US$28,700) under the principle of proportionality and was required to rectify the situation before December 20, 2005. On November 15, 2005, the GIO published a position paper regarding the handling of the TVBS ownership structure issue. The issue has involved many Taiwanese, legislators, officials in the executive branch, and even the President of Taiwan.

In the position paper, the Taiwan government concluded that TVBS, a subsidiary of the Hong Kong Television Broadcasts Ltd. (commonly known as TVB) was 100 percent owned by foreign shareholders, and therefore violated Article 10 of the Satellite Broadcasting Act, which stipulates that, "the total shares of a satellite broadcasting business directly held by foreign shareholders shall be less than 50 percent of the total shares issued by the said business."

When TVBS applied for license renewal six months ago, it claimed that 47 percent of its shares were held by the Hong Kong-based TVB Investment Ltd. and the remaining 53 percent by the Taiwan-based Countless Entertainment (Taiwan) Company Ltd. However, TVB Investment Ltd owns 100 percent of Countless Entertainment (Taiwan) Company Ltd., making TVBS a completely foreign-owned company.

A goal of further investigation is to find out if there are any investment holdings by the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.) in TVBS. The Chairman of TVBS, Norman Leung, was the Chairman of the Hong Kong Broadcasting Authority from 1997 to 2002. Some legislators from the Democratic Progressive Party stated that a 100 percent Hong Kong ownership of Taiwan media’s TVBS was the equivalent to a 100 percent P.R.C. ownership, especially considering Norman Leung’s background. Wen-chih Yao, Minister of the Government Information Office (GIO), stated, "Given the TVBS Chairman’s background as a Hong Kong official, legislators are questioning the station’s political stance, and the GIO has required that TVBS clarify this too."

Starting on November 5, Taiwan Southern Society launched a campaign to boycot TVBS. According to the President of the Society, Cheng Chengyu, TVBS and United Daily News are the base for P.R.C. forces in Taiwan television and newspapers. On the surface, they embrace the sovereignty of Taiwan. However, their programs and reports don’t live up to the level of support that they have stated. Cheng thought TVBS had abused freedom of the press in Taiwan and had issued malicious reports that harmed Taiwan.

P.R.C. infiltration of Taiwan media was already been brought into question when Phoenix TV, a Hong Kong-based TV station, tried to expand its presence in Taiwan. According to a November 5 report by Liberty Times, three or four years ago, Phoenix TV applied to the GIO for a permit to broadcast its programs in Taiwan. The GIO turned down the application because Pheonix TV’s programs were considered prejudiced in their reports on cross-strait relations. About two months ago, the President of Phoenix TV, Liu Changle, made a secret trip to Taiwan and visited GIO Minister Yao, hoping to apply for the permit again.
Phoenix TV is regarded by many as Beijing’s overseas mouthpiece and even bears the nickname, "overseas CCTV (China Central TV)." Speaking of Phoenix TV, Wu Guoguang, who was once part of the think tank advising former Secretary General of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Zhao Ziyang and is currently the China Program Chair at the Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives of University of Victoria, Hong Kong, stated in the Chinese article, "The Sophistication of China’s Political Propaganda" that it was part of Communist China’s strategy to "export in order to import." He explained this by telling about a personal experience he had. The night before Iraqi soldiers surrendered en masse in March 2003, Wu was in Hong Kong, closely following the news. He watched the Phoenix TV station, because it broadcast in Mandarin, while all the other local TV stations broadcast in Cantonese, a dialect that he did not understand. He learned from the news that the U.S. troops met fierce resistance in Iraq.

To his surprise, the following day, all the newspapers reported on the front page that Iraqi soldiers surrendered en masse. He was both shocked and upset. Phoenix TV followed the propaganda of the Chinese government media so closely that it misrepresented the fighting and simply did not report the surrender of the Iraqi soldiers.

Wu then called his friends in mainland China and discovered that none of them heard the news from Iraq. His friends told him that they did not watch CCTV, China’s state-run TV station, but instead watched the "overseas" Phoenix TV.

"Why doesn’t it [Phoenix TV] have a Cantonese channel or Cantonese programs, given that it is stationed in [Cantonese-speaking] Hong Kong?" questioned Wu in the article. Wu’s answer was that the majority of the people in China have lost both their confidence and interest in China’s state media. "Overseas" media — media from outside China—are believed to be credible. Therefore, the Chinese regime created its own "overseas media" to spread its political propaganda. Many Chinese consider Phoenix TV to be an overseas media.

A top staff member of the Phoenix North American Chinese Channel (PNACC) was recently arrested for stealing U.S. military secrets. The history of the PNACC, including the personal background of its founding CEO and the station’s role as a propaganda arm of the Chinese regime, raise serious questions regarding the role of PNACC itself in China’s espionage efforts in the United States.

On October 28, U.S. intelligence officials arrested two Chinese couples in the Los Angeles area and charged them with stealing U.S. military secrets. One couple was arrested at the Los Angeles airport, the other at their home in Downey. The man arrested at the airport, Tai Wang Mak, is said to be "a broadcast and engineering director for the Phoenix North American Chinese Channel." The man arrested in Downey, Chi Mak (also known as Jack Mak), was the Lead Project Engineer for the defense contractor Power Paragon (a subsidiary of L3/SPD Technologies/Power Systems Group in Anaheim, California), and is his elder brother.
According to an FBI affidavit, Chi Mak allegedly took computer disks from Power Paragon with sensitive information about a Navy project. Allegedly he also e-mailed photos and reports about the project to his home computer. He and his wife then copied the information onto CDs and delivered them to his brother Tai Wang Mak. He and his wife were scheduled to fly to Hong Kong on October 28 in order to meet later with a contact in Guangzhou, China, the affidavit says.

TVBS in the meantime is invoking freedom of the press to protect its position and fend off the legal attack and is attacking the GIO. The extent and success of P.R.C. infiltration of Taiwanese television remains to be seen.

From the Editor

In China’s TV market, the state-owned China Central TV Station (CCTV) has enjoyed a virtual monopoly since its creation and boasts nearly 70 percent of the overall market. For smaller players, gaining a significant market share is a daunting task. Before 2005, Hunan (Satellite) TV was a no-name regional channel that few outside its territory had ever heard of. After two bold and successful program launches this past summer, though, Hunan TV has become the darling of the industry, a model of boldness that may spark a revolution in China’s TV world.

One of the breakout programs was a singing competition called Super Girls or Super Female Voices, in which the selection process was conducted by viewers voting through mobile phone short message services. The program garnered tremendous interest and drew unprecedented participation from Chinese TV viewers. As a result, it raked in record revenues for the local TV station, and set a new standard for viewing rate and advertising price previously held by CCTV.

Flush with the success of Super Girls, Hunan TV bought the broadcasting rights for a 70-episode South Korean drama series called Dae Jang Geum (Jewel in the Palace) for a hefty 10 million yuan (US$1.2 million) price tag. It was another blockbuster move. According to the Report of China’s TV Drama Market (2005~2006), China produces 40,000 episodes of TV drama series each year, with 7,000 eventually making it to living rooms across China. But none has come close to the success of Dae Jang Geum. As a matter of fact, many have criticized the industry for its predictability and lack of taste.

After Dae Jang Geum aired, it quickly drew tremendous interest across the nation and attracted audiences of all demographics. Commentators credited the series’ success to having traditional Chinese values at its core, presented in a package uniquely appealing to today’s audience. The drama highlights virtues such as honesty, love, dedication, compassion, and perseverance through a true historical story from the royal palace.

Although the programs’ success is indicative of what the Chinese people want, the airing of such programs is not going unnoticed, as both programs have irked some of the politically sensitive authorities. In the case of Super Girls, it reminds one of a democratic referendum, which is what the communist regime fears the most. As for the popular Korean drama, it poses the issue of "culture infiltration," another touchy subject in a Communist-governed society.

We are featuring an article about the phenomenon of a Korean craze brought on by Dae Jang Geum in this issue. We have also invited political analyst Dong Li to share his insights (page 22) on the Fifth Plenum of the 16th Chinese Communist Party Conference held on October 8 to11.

In the culture section, we have an article introducing one of the wonders of acupuncture-a needle to the ear that can relieve pain from any part of the body.

Provincial Officials to Receive Advanced Training in US

On December 27, the University of Utah accepted 23 officials from Hainan Province. In a week they will depart for a year and half long program resulting in an Executive Master’s in Public Administration (EMPA). As part of their five year training plan which will consist of 18 programs launched by Hainan Province, these officials were selected to receive advanced study so that they will obtain “leadership and executive ability; strategic and global vision; and financial management skills under the market economic environment,” said Wei Liucheng, the provincial party secretary of Hainan.

Source: Xinhua News Agency, December 30, 2007

Emergency Fund Issued To Aid College Student Cafeterias

On December 29, the Ministry of Finance approved a 50 million yuan (US$6.8 million) emergency fund to provide temporary aid to college student cafeterias. It is to ensure that, prior to the upcoming winter break, students’ lives will not be affected by the increased price of raw materials. Earlier this year, the General Office of the State Council issued a notice to various levels of governments to provide financial relief to student cafeterias and those students who are on financial aid. In addition, the National Development And Reform Mission also requested the students’ receive discounts in college utility expenses.

Source: China News, December 30, 2007

Former Secretary of The Deceased Vice Premier May Face Death Sentence

Wang Weigong, former secretary of the deceased Huang Ju, Executive Vice Premier of China was arrested for corruption involving Shanghai’s social security funds and may face a death sentence. The scale of corruption was reported to be as high as 45 million yuan (US$6.1 million), which is the largest known amount of corruption. It was reported that Wang has refused to disclose any other names involved in this case including Jiang Mianheng, the son of Jiang Zemin, former President of China.

Source: Powerapple, December 29, 2007