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CNA: Xi Jinping stated that China will not follow the path of Western Constitutionalism

There have been constant discussions on the relationship between the party and the law and which one is more powerful. In a list of internal speeches that Xi Jinping made, Xi has repeatedly stated that China will not follow the path of Western Constitutionalism. The Central News Agency published an article which contains those speeches. Below is the summary of Xi’s statements:

1. In August 2018, during the first meeting of party’s Central Committee, Xi said that the party’s policy is the forerunner and guide on national law. (China) will never take the Western constitutional path. To promote the rule of law comprehensively, China must take the right path. It must proceed from China’s national conditions and actual conditions and follow the path of the rule of law that suits us; it will not copy the models and practices of other countries. It will not follow the Western “constitutionalism,” “separation of powers,” and “judicial independence.”

2. In January 2014 during the Political Work Conference of the Central Committee, Xi said that, “The relationship between the party’s policies and national laws should be handled correctly.” The party’s policies and the national laws are “essentially consistent” and are the reflection of the fundamental will of the people. However, “the party’s policy is the guide concerning national law; it is the basis of legislation and an important guide for law enforcement and justice.” Xi also said that “it is necessary to be capable of seeing that the party’s will shall also be the will of the state; it will form the law through legal procedures,” it will ensure the effective implementation of party policies through the law,” and will ensure that the party plays the overall role of the overall leadership and the parties to the agreement.”

3. In February 2014, Xi told a group of provincial level officials that the “Chinese people’s democracy” is essentially different from Western constitutionalism. “The leadership of the party is the most essential feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.” Xi stressed that, “We say that governing the country according to law means that, under the leadership of the party, the general public manages state affairs through various channels and forms in accordance with the constitution and the laws.” As for “ruling the country according to the constitution and governing according to the constitution, it is not to negate and abandon the party’s leadership, but to emphasize that the party leads the people to formulate the Constitution and the laws, and the party leads the people to implement the Constitution and the laws.”

4. In February 2015, Xi told another group of provincial level officials that the relationship between the party and the law is a political trap, a false proposition. To the party and the government organizations and leading cadres at all levels, which side has the power is the true issue.

Source: Central News Agency, February 16, 2019

A Chinese Local Government Shames a Fugitive by Spray-painting His House

A local government in Guangdong Province of China was reported to have spray-painted the characters, “telemarketing fraud fugitive” on the front door of a telemarketing fraud fugitive’s house. It also publicized a letter to family members of the fugitive, including a threat to freeze the identity cards and financial cards of the fugitive’s direct family members.

According to Beijing Youth Daily, a Chinese newspaper based in Beijing, a recent message that the government of Shuzai Township of Dianbai District in Maoming City of Guangdong Province released has drawn widespread attention on the Internet. The Chinese Communist Party’s Shuzai Township Committee and the Shuzai Township People’s Government signed a “letter to the families of fugitives,” dated February 3. The letter stated that, if the telemarketing fraud fugitives do not submit themselves before February 10, the township government will cut the water and electricity supply of their homes, spray-paint the words “telemarketing fraud fugitive” on the suspects’ houses, and freeze the identity cards and financial cards of the fugitives’ direct family members.

On February 13, some netizens released videos and photos showing that the local officials have spray-painted the house of a fugitive. Netizens have expressed that the government’s action was too arbitrary and questioned the act of implicating innocent family members.

Source: Central News Agency, February 15, 2019

Coordination and Promotion of Military-Civilian Integration and the “One Belt and One Road”

{Editor’s Note: In recent years, since Xi Jinping took office, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has been pursuing a strategy of integrating military with civilian usage. It is taking civilian technologies and transforming them so they can be used for military purposes on a massive scale. In a way, a large number of civilian enterprises have thus been tinted with a military color. At the same time, economic development has also been taking the factor of war into account, especially in the manufacturing industry. When needed, a civil society can quickly be mobilized to serve military purposes. The article below is a policy proposal from a Chinese Academy of Social Sciences scholar. It advocates the expansion of the military-civilian integration to the countries and regions along the “One Belt and One Road.” In a sense, the idea would turn the “One Belt and One Road” country bloc into a certain type of cooperation in military technologies.

The following is a translation of selected excerpts from the article.} {1}

Coordination and Promotion of Military-civilian Integration and the
“One Belt and One Road”

April 25, 2017

Red Flag Manuscript

By Shen Yanxin

The strategy issue is a fundamental issue for a political party and a country. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that “military-civilian integration is a national strategy that concerns the overall security and development of our country. It is a move to rejuvenate the nation as well as a strategy for strengthening the military.” Promoting military-civilian integration and strengthening the military through technology “must be coordinated within the overall national strategic layout in line with the national strategic plan.” “The construction of the ‘One Belt and One Road’ is also a major strategic decision that the Party’s Central Committee made. Both are part of the national strategy. It is a topic worthy of in-depth research on how to ensure that both the strategic military-civilian integration and the “One Belt and One Road” work hand in hand to achieve coordinated progress and mutual reinforcement.

I. With “One Belt and One Road,” the military-civilian integration has made significant progress.

“Defense technology and munitions are the focus of the military-civilian integration, as well as an important indicator for measuring the level of military-civilian integration.” {2} The implementation of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative has pushed forward military technology exchanges and cooperation between China and the countries along the route so that the integration takes place on a larger scale, at a higher level, and goes deeper. The national defense technology industry is a natural carrier for military-civilian integration. So far, with the promotion of the “One Belt and One Road,” international exchange and cooperation in the national defense technology industry have achieved important results.

International cooperation in the field of nuclear technology has also deepened. At present, “nuclear power” has become the representative “business card” of China, just like the “high-speed rail.” Since the launch of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative, China’s nuclear power technology has seen steady breakthroughs. Statistics show that among the countries and regions along the “One Belt and One Road,” in addition to China, there are 19 countries and regions already equipped with nuclear power and more than 20 countries and regions are planning to develop nuclear power. China has already signed cooperation agreements with Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, France, Jordan, Armenia, and other countries. It is estimated that a total of 240 nuclear power units will be built by 2030, 80 percent of which will be built in the neighboring countries along the “One Belt and One Road.” China alone is striving to build about 30 nuclear power units in the countries along the “One Belt and One Road” by 2030.

Aerospace multilateral (bilateral) international scientific and technological cooperation has advanced and delivered results. With the opportunities derived from the “One Belt and One Road,” China’s aviation industry is further integrated into the world aviation industrial chain. In the aerospace field, China has signed space cooperation agreements with more than 30 countries, and established good government and commercial cooperation mechanisms with countries along the “One Belt and One Road,” thus laying a good foundation for the promotion and application of spatial information technology. At present, on the southern route of the “One Belt and One Road,” China promotes technical cooperation with Asian and African countries on helicopters, regional aircraft, and general aviation industries. It also promotes the development of the aviation industry in relevant countries through the establishment of customer service bases. On the northern route of the “One Belt and One Road,” China and Russia will cooperate on wide-body aircraft and heavy-duty helicopters, and will make it an important achievement in Sino-Russian cooperation in the field of equipment manufacturing.

The spatial information corridor of the “One Belt and One Road” has been developed and promoted. In 2016, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND) and the China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) issued the “Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Development and Application of the “One Belt and One Road” Spatial Information Corridor.” The spatial information corridor is mainly based on communication satellites, navigation satellites, and remote sensing satellite resources that are in orbit or in the planning stage. These appropriately complement the space-based resources and the ground information sharing network to form a four-in-one spatial information service system of “sensation, transmission, knowledge, and use.” The spatial information service system provides spatial information service capabilities for countries and regions along the “One Belt and One Road” to achieve information interconnection.

In addition, the implementation of the “One Belt and One Road” initiative and especially the development of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road,” have also brought about important strategic opportunities for Chinese shipping companies, the munitions industry, and electronic technology. The achievements in military-civilian integration have been remarkable.

III. Specific proposals for the coordination and promotion of military-civilian integration and the “One Belt and One Road”

3. Strengthen the coordination of science and technology and strive to improve the innovation ability of the military-civilian synergy.

Scientific and technological innovation have always played a leading role in the development of the “One Belt and One Road.” With the continuous advancement of science and technology, “national strategic competitiveness, social productivity, and military combat effectiveness are becoming more and more intertwined; the defense economy, the social economy, along with military and civilian technology have become more and more integrated.” {3} Therefore, the two strategies of promoting the military-civilian integration and the “One Belt and One Road” have highlighted an urgent need for scientific and technological innovation.

We should take advantage of the “One Belt and One Road” innovation platform in a comprehensive way to accelerate the innovative military-civilian integration. In September 2016, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued the “Special Plan for Promoting the ‘One Belt and One Road’ to advance Cooperation in Scientific and Technological Innovation.” This set forth proactive measures for the “One Belt and One Road” technology innovation cooperation: together with countries along the “One Belt and One Road,” China will build a number of research laboratories, joint research centers, technology transfer centers, and advanced technology demonstration and promotion bases to promote the interconnection and service sharing of data and technology resources and to strengthen the application of new technologies in smart grids and information communication networks. The establishment of such an open platform infrastructure will help promote the two-way transfer and transformation of military and civilian technologies, benefit joint research, and enhance research on basic, cutting-edge, and key technologies.

We should comprehensively take advantage of the “One Belt and One Road” talent platform to serve the military-civilian integration. The Communist Party and the State have proposed to improve the military personnel’s support system and train new military talent in large numbers and of high-quality. The “Special Plan for Promoting the ‘One Belt and One Road,’ and to Develop Scientific and Technological Innovation Cooperation” clarifies the talent training goal for scientific and technological innovation cooperation: in three to five years, the exchanges and cooperation between science and technology personnel will be substantially improved and over 150,000 scientific and technical personnel will come to China for exchange training. More than 5,000 outstanding young scientists will be working in China. This provides the possibility for the integration of educational resources for the military-civilian integration. At present, to achieve the coordination of science and technology resources, we need to build a policy regime for the “One Belt and One Road” related resources available to provide services for the military-civilian integration.

Author: Associate Research Fellow, Department of Political History, Institute of Contemporary China, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

{1} Red Flag Manuscript, Shen Yanxin, “Coordination and Promotion of Military-Civilian Integration and the “One Belt and One Road,” April 25, 2017.
{2} A quote from a speech given by Xi Jinping.
{3} Ibid.

LTN: World Freedom Report Ranked Taiwan High and Mainland China Low

Major Taiwanese news network Liberty Times Network (LTN) recently reported that Freedom House just released its annual Freedom in the World report. The 2019 Report showed a decline in freedom in 68 countries and improvements in 50 countries. Among all 195 countries, 86 were classified as “free countries,” 59 were considered to have “partial freedom,” and 40 were “not free.” Above all, as a trend, the world is seeing a decline in democracy. The United States earned a score of 86 (out of 100), which is below the above-90 countries like France, Germany and Britain. In Asia, among “free countries” Japan scored 96, Taiwan scored 93, South Korea scored 83, and India scored 75. “Partial Freedom” Asian counties include Indonesia 62, the Philippines 61, Hong Kong 59, and Singapore 51. As “not free” Asian countries, Thailand earned 30, Vietnam got 20, and North Korea had a score of 3. China scored 11. The report indicated that, following China’s lead, more and more countries are aiming to put more controls on their citizens living overseas.

Source: LTN, February 5, 2019

The Author of Bloody Red Land: Violence in Chinese Communist Party’s Land Reform; Passed Down through Today

Around Chinese New Year, a new book:

  • The Bloody Red Land – a Collection of Interviews on the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP’s) Land Reform was published outside of  China. The author, Tan Song, a former professor at Chongqing Normal University, is now living in exile in Los Angeles. Tan was expelled from school in 2017 for conducting research on and publicizing the truth about the history of the CCP’s land reform. Over a period of 14 years, Tan interviewed over a hundred Sichuanese who had personally experienced the land reform that took place between 1950 and 1952. Radio Free Asia interviewed Tan on his new book.

The last question the reporter asked was, “What do you think is the main purpose of the CCP’s launch of land reform, what are the methods it used, and what kind of impact has it had on China today?”

Tan replied, “To put it simply, one purpose was to have the people of China, that the CCP just conquered, submit themselves to the rule of the party. The CCP handed out both favors and terror. The favors had to do with the land they gave. Where did the land come from? They did not have either. They would grab it from the landlords. A large number of farmers were thus grateful to this regime. At the same time, it made them scared. The land reform movement was a violent movement and a very bloody movement.”

“There was another purpose. The CCP needed money too much. The CCP took away the landlords’ assets, mainly gold, silver, and treasures. This solved a major financial problem and these were not distributed to the farmers.”

“At the same time, the land reform strengthened the CCP’s rule over the countryside. It established CCP branches in every remote mountain village.”

“The CCP also fulfilled the purpose of eliminating the carrier of the traditional Chinese culture in the countryside – the country gentlemen. The reason was that it needed the Marxist-Leninist culture to govern the countryside.”

What is the relationship between land reform and today’s China? Tan observed, “I think this is the best question and best research topic. In fact, the methods of land reform are basically the same as what it uses today. In the land reform, three methods were used: deception with lies, violent suppression, and buying off with material interest. These three methods are still in use today. There has been no change. The brutal methods in the land reform have been passed down. You can see this from the Cultural Revolution and the suppression of Falun Gong. These cruel and inferior methods are in the same vein and have not changed. Moreover, its nature of robbing the riches from the landlords and distributing their property has not changed at all.”

Source: Radio Free Asia, February 8, 2019

Chinese Commentator on the CCP’s Fear

Yuan Bin is a regular commentary writer for the Epoch Times Chinese. He recently wrote two articles commenting that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has recently been having intensified fear for the regime’s future.

On February 3, Yuan commented on Xi Jinping’s speech marking the 40th anniversary of former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping’s decision to “reform and open up.” Xi used a term which is unusual. The term was “unimaginable perils and dangers” to describe what the CCP currently faces. Time Magazine called that sentence a key note in Xi’s speech and translated it as, “Every step in the course of reform and opening up is not easy, and we will face all kinds of risks and challenges, even some unimaginably rough waves.”

Yuan suggested that the term “unimaginable” had three meanings: One, even the CCP does not know how big the risk  of those “rough waves” is and how severe their effect will be. Two, the CCP does not know when the “rough waves” will arrive. Three, the CCP does not know what form the “rough waves” will take. “The ‘rough waves’ are already very scary for the CCP. It is even more scary to the CCP that it cannot accurately predict them.”

On February 4, Yuan commented in the news that, on February 1, Xi Jinping visited the joint combat command center of the Beijing Public Security Bureau (Police Department). Yuan indicated that it is the CCP’s convention that its officials will visit some places during the Chinese New Year (February 5 this year), to show that they care about the people. However, which places they visit conveys a very important political message. Normally they are the regions or industries on which the CCP wants to focus.

In the six previous years, Xi visited a different province each year. This year was abnormal. Xi stayed in Beijing instead and visited the police station. Yuan viewed this as a clear political message that the CCP is going to strengthen its rule of the country via the police system. The CCP’s focal point for this year is stability. Recently, the government also increased police officers’ salaries by 38 percent.

Yuan observed, “However, the more the CCP relies on the police, the more it strengthens its rule of the country via the police system, the more it demonstrates how unstable the regime is, the more severe the crisis is that it faces, and the closer the day is that it will fall!”

1. Time Magazine, December 20, 2018
2. The Epoch Times, February 3, 2019
3. The Epoch Times, February 4, 2019