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Using Internet Principles to Manage the Internet

The Internet as the representative of the new media, has become a strong force to express the public’s opinion, fight against corruption and appeal for justice. A number of incidents have been exposed through the Internet. It revealed the true identity of “Tiger Zhou.” The picture of the rare breed of tiger was actually a fake. The voices of “Web surfers” were heard during the “Two Sessions.” The government dismissed the protagonists in the events of “using public money for massage therapy” and “over priced cigarettes.”  The rise of the new media is both refreshing and shocking.

Few people doubt that the Internet will continue to expand its influence and will play an increasingly important role in our country’s political and social life.

However, the management of the Internet presents a new difficult problem to deal with. Instances of pornography, fraud, and network violence are numerous, seriously polluting the network environment. Law enforcement agencies have not slackened in training and combat, but that has achieved little. Although government departments pay attention to network public opinion, and issue positive and timely responses, most responses are passive, lag behind, or play the role of firefighters. Some officials are deeply worried about the network and find it is difficult to face the surging “network of accountability storm.” In the eyes of some people, the Internet is really a great scourge. It is impervious to reason and difficult to tame. These phenomena show that the traditional management philosophy and management style have lost their roles in the virtual world. The special action of regulating the Internet’s vulgar atmosphere has aroused strong reactions. All social circles actively participate, regard it highly and have marked that a new type of model for Internet management has begun to take shape. The characteristics of this model involve using Internet principles to manage the Internet. That is, in accordance with the virtual world’s basic features and principles, letting nature take its course and guiding the matter along its course can achieve maximum effectiveness.

Managing of Network Information

The management of the Internet, in fact, is management of network information, rather than management of anything human or material.

What is the most fundamental characteristic of the virtual world? The virtual world is a kingdom of information. There is nothing except information. In that world, we can’t see the tangible or the human body. We can only see the information coming forth to transmit people’s thoughts rapidly and to develop people’s relationships. The traditional management model, which focuses on the human body and the tangible, faces frustration and difficulties here. The particular difficulty is that we are facing network information, rather than general information. The most basic characteristic of network information is anonymity. People hide their identity, background, status and reputation to express their thoughts freely and indulgently. Sometimes the thoughts are mixed with non-rational emotions, so it is difficult to judge the authenticity of the information. Another characteristic of network information is that the contents are comprehensive and the numbers are huge. It contains insights and valuable spiritual wealth, as well as pornography, violence and vulgar contents. This brings great difficulty to our management. The third characteristic of network information is its rapid dissemination. At first, net friend post messages, causing many messages to follow, bringing more large-scale views and comments. And then the messages are reproduced by the portal. People use cell phones and instant media to send messages to their friends and relatives and it ultimately leads to a hot spot of social events.

We must manage the Internet effectively and in accordance with the characteristics of the network information. The management of the human and tangible aspects should be classified and the management of network information should be classified too. Different management strategies should be adopted for each aspect. Online harmful information is divided into illegal information, false information, and vulgar information. Illegal information refers to various types of information that are specifically prohibited by the relevant state laws and regulations. False information is contrary to what is true, including disinformation, deception, distortion, etc., part of which can be classified as illegal information, but needs to be distinguished carefully. The so-called vulgar information isn’t popular information, but refers to coarse, immoral interests, and wrong value-oriented information. For the illegal information, combat should be the focus. The strength of the vast numbers of Internet users should be used to report and launch many websites to resist consciously. For the false information, the focus should be on clarification. The government and the media authorities need to take the initiative to stand up, expose the lies, and disclose the truth in a timely manner. For the vulgar information, the focus should be on guidance. The government and the media authorities need to dialog with the Internet users equally through various means, guide the direction of network opinions, and imperceptibly influence the Internet users’ thoughts.

Mobilizing the Public is the Basic Strategy for Managing the Internet.

Limited management forces can’t deal with the rapid dissemination of information when the number is astronomical. In fact, compared with general information, network information can be monitored easily, because it is in full view of the public at all times, and there are lots of piercing eyes. Regulating the Internet’s vulgar atmosphere can result in brilliant achievements, fundamentally owing to the vastness of Internet users’ reports and responses. Under the strong pressure of network opinion, the vast majority of web sites enhance their self-awareness.

In addition, full use should be made of the characteristics of the Internet, using management of the critical node, the psychology of groups and people’s thoughts, and the interaction between virtual space and the real world.

Management of the Key Nodes

The mathematician, Barabas, found that many websites only had a small number online, fewer sites had a medium number online, and very few sites had a large number online. This indicates that the network is dominated by the “many websites who have a small number online.”
If the key nodes that have the most extensive contacts in the network are controlled, it will be easier to control the entire network.

Therefore the emphasis of network information is the management of the key website nodes. From the view of websites, these key nodes are search engines, telecommunications network operators, and mainstream media. They provide the access services, web links and the authoritative information. If these key nodes can be controlled well, the dissemination of harmful information will be greatly reduced. The special action of regulating the Internet’s vulgar atmosphere can result in brilliant achievements, owing to focus on monitoring these key nodes on the Internet.
From the point of Internet users, the key to the node network is "opinion leaders." Some experienced net friends’ points of view control Internet users’ judgment, and guide the direction of network opinions. The main body of China’s Internet users is young people. They don’t have much experience, and are more vulnerable to the impact of opinion leaders. The relevant departments should consciously train the opinion leaders, and make the network opinions more rational and less impetuous.

Virtual communities are having more and more force in the real world. This will, no doubt, launch a major challenge to the administration management. Government officials at all levels should not only be the spectators, but should be the network’ participants. They should not only respond network to opinion negatively, but should be the online opinion leaders. Otherwise, they can’t be competent enough to handle their leadership role in real society. Shanghai is exploring the "double moderator, double entry” mode. Neighborhood cadres, in accordance with the rules, become the community forum co-moderator and dialogue equally with the residents of the virtual community. The original owner is taken to the real community to understand and become more familiar with the situation. Through guiding and leading the community views, the relevant departments need not adopt rigid regulations, so community management will be more effective and humane.

The Guide of Group Psychology

Network information sometimes is full of irrational and violent tendencies, and can even brew into a "network of crises." In this process, group psychology can play a major role. Once a group psychology forms, the individual will lose his reason and sense of responsibility. The individuals will be emotional, impulsive, use extreme language, and have the feature of offensiveness. Using infection and imitation will push the original speech to the extreme until it rises to the level of being out of control. The characteristic of the Internet is interactive. Interaction is two-way and multi-directional, so an emotional state can spread very fast. Because of the impulse, people lose their reason and change from an individual psychology to a group psychology.

Group psychology can be managed in the best, the second best, and the worst ways. The best way is to take preventive measures. According to the “broken window effect,” if a window has been broken, it should be repaired immediately; otherwise more windows will be broken. Because people accept this suggestion: breaking the window is allowed and you will not be subjected to discipline. On the Internet, if a message fulfills people’s expectations, and matches their dissatisfaction, people will automatically believe, go along with it, and thus give positive feedback to make it snowball, developing rapidly to an uncontrollable level. Therefore, when the harmful information just appears, there should be a keen eye to detect it and to clarify or counter-attack in order to hinder the formation of a group psychology. Relevant departments should pay close attention to dynamic network opinion and assess which negative information will reflect a certain class’ voice, if it will spread rapidly, and whether it will lead to a crisis. If the outlook is not optimistic, it will be necessary to join the mainstream of online media, disseminate the truth, spread positive public opinion and refute the wrong views.

The second choice is in the initial formation of the group psychology, when the negative sentiment is spreading, but has not yet translated into concrete action. At that time, the need is to use the French scholar Le Bounty’s three means when leaders mobilize the public: assertion, repetition and transmission. Making a simple and strong assertion is the best way to allow a certain concept to have access to people’s minds.

The worst way is intervention after the situation has expanded. At that time, a great effort will be needed to clarify the truth and also to make up for the resulting heavy losses.

The Citrus incident provides a painful lesson. Last year in Mid-October, the news of Citrus worms was disseminated widely in the community. Rumors started flying. Citrus all over the country could not be sold, and tangerine farmers suffered huge losses.
At present, this last situation is most prevalent for relevant departments that deal with network crises. It had already brewed into the serious consequences before the truth was clarified and the group calmed down.           
(Xiaobai Sheng/ Nanjing Audit University)


Articles by the Chinese Academy of Social Science: On Netizens and Unexpected Incidents

Safety Issues of the (Communist) Culture under the Influence of “Internet Public Opinion” [1] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, May 19, 2009

Public opinion is often expressed and spread through the Internet. It is an integrated sum of the multiple feelings, attitudes, and opinions of Internet users about all kinds of social and public affairs that they care about or that are closely related to their interests. These public opinions mainly spread through email, BBS, instant messaging, Internet news and follow-up, blogs, podcasts, wikis, and Internet surveys, as well as some social software programs. The spread of public opinion on the Internet is part of the spread of culture. It does not have regional or national borders and it has sped up the globalization of human culture. The most important feature is that by using all kinds of ways and approaches, Internet public opinion presents a different culture, different manners and customs, and different senses of value to people. It indeed opens up people’s minds. However, to some degree it also impacts peoples’ values and conduct that formed during their previous socialization. It causes inadequate adaptation of people’s minds and barriers to their actions.

The freedom and openness of the Internet are creating prerequisites that have never existed before for the spread of diverse culture. The closeness that the Internet has brought to all countries and people in the world is unprecedented. The free spread of Internet information has caused both integration and collision of different cultures. On the one hand, this kind of integration and collision are without any governmental control and have a positive significance. On the other hand however, they also create some degree of threat to the stability and solidarity of our country and society. Especially for those youths who have had little experience with our traditional culture, the national culture has not rooted in their minds. It is highly possible that, influenced by foreign Internet information (mainly Western ideology), our youths will not yet have immunity from it or the ability to discriminate properly. The social mentality of this specific social group is therefore threatened to some degree.

Since the spread of public opinion on the Internet is an important part of the spread of culture, in order to eliminate its influence on cultural safety at its roots, we must start spreading cultural propaganda. As the Internet is developed rapidly, it is crucial to use effective ways to spread cultural propaganda.

(1) Insist on the Strategy of Active Defense regarding the Spread of Culture. To put it in fundamental words, it is to look at the world’s cultural diversity in the right way and insist on the fundamentality of the Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics. We need to utilize the Internet to spread the national culture, and strengthen the national spirit and the cohesive force of this advanced culture. We need to construct an effective system to protect culture and strengthen the force for guarding against and fighting back against the psychological warfare of western culture, expand communication among different cultures, and improve the Chinese people’s psychological endurance and the Chinese culture’s immunity. Also, at the right times and with the right global situations, such as some incidents, we should use cultural attacks to actively attack western culture in order to reduce its influence on us.

(2) Strengthen the (Communist) Party’s Controlling Force over the Spread of Culture in the Macroscopic Picture. First, we need to set clear value standards on the content of the spreading culture. Secondly, regarding the media that cultures spread with, we need to enhance the supervision over the different kinds of spreading tools, especially the Internet. We must strengthen the establishment and reinforcement of laws related to cultural spread so that we can use the laws to crack down on the illegal activities of spreading things through media such as the Internet that harm basic values and that are against common social interests. Thirdly, we need to train a politically strong troop that is proficient in its work, has great discipline, and has a correct attitude to spread cultural.

(3) Make a Great Effort to Boost the Spreading Power of Socialist Culture with Chinese Characteristics. In the past 30 years, as China’s overall strength has continued to grow and international prestige has continued to improve, our culture’s spreading power has improved a lot. It has almost completely spread in multiple languages, with multiple media (radio, newspapers, television, magazines, and the Internet, etc.), and has the charm of “Chinese characteristics.” This not only expands the global influence of Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, but also to some degree it improves and expands our nation’s strategic interests.

How Internet Public Opinion Spreads [2] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, May 19, 2009

(1) Interactivity. On the Internet, the Netizens in general show a strong sense of participation. During the process of commenting and giving opinions about a certain incident, there are often many Netizens participating in the discussion. Frequently, it forms an interactive environment, where opinions from two opposite sides both appear and they discuss, argue, exchange opinions, collide, and even clash. This kind of real-time interactive sharing enables different opinions to come out quickly. The discussion is able to get more complete, more in-depth, and more concentrated. As an example, in July of 2008, Yang Jia, the young man from Beijing, killed seven policemen with a knife in Shanghai, and injured 3 policemen and a security guard. Public opinion should condemn Yang Jia’s killing action and the law should strictly punish him. However, on the Internet there were quite some people justifying Yang Jia’s action. Netizens with different opinions argued very intensely over the Internet.

(2) Inaccuracy. Each Netizen as an individual experiences pressure in the real world, and this directly affects what he or she expresses on the Internet. Influenced by all kinds of factors, some of the arguments on the Internet lack reason and tend to be perceptual and emotional. Some people even take the Internet as a place to release their anger. When people have frustration in their lives in the real world, or when they have some biased views about society, they can use the Internet to express anger. Therefore, on the Internet, it tends to be voices that are more vulgar and pessimistic. For example, as the crisis of the world economy continues to expand, some companies in cities along the shores are having trouble paying their workers, and some companies have even declared bankruptcy. The real estate economy also keeps going down. Some Netizens perpetually use the Internet to spread their comments. At the same time, very often the Netizens’ moods can affect each other. Thus, the Internet public opinion is a result of the interaction of individuals’ moods as well as groups of people’s moods. Sometimes it is a reflection of the real situation. However, at other times, it causes a deviation from people’s original opinion. What we must pay attention to is that others can easily echo people’s emotional opinions, and this can therefore lead to harmful public opinions; it can be very seditious and destructive. Take the Harbin young man, Lin Songling, who six policemen killed, as a typical example. [Ed: On October 11, 2008, a surveillance video tape was posted on the Internet showing a brawl in which six plainclothes Harbin police officers beat a young man to death. It was quickly reposted on many forums. Some Netizens suspected the police had suspiciously edited it.] On the Internet, public opinion quickly expanded and the speed with which rumors spread could not have been overseen.

Netizens Gradually Take Over the Role of the Main Body in Expressing Public Opinion [3] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, May 19, 2009

The Internet in China has grown rapidly in recent years. According to the data from China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), at the end of 2008, 22.6% of people were Internet users in China. It was the first time China passed the global average, which was 21.9%. At the same time, the Chinese Netizen population reached 298 million, which stayed at the top worldwide. The Netizen population is still rapidly growing. The main body of those who participate in Internet sharing is composed of Netizens. They frequently use the Internet to spread and share media, acquire information on the Internet, participate in the interaction on the Internet, give personal opinions, and express their positions on different issues on the Internet. Studying the characteristics of the Netizens since they are the main body on the Internet and analyzing their behavior can help us realize and control the pattern of spreading Internet public opinion and make it better serve the government’s decision making.

The Netizens express many kinds of emotion, attitudes, and opinions. But the center of these is their political attitude.

Since the essence of people’s social political attitude is driven by their concern for their personal interests this, in turn, affects the government’s control and decision making. Therefore it has become the core content of Internet public forum discussions. The Netizens should be managed by the government and they need the government to represent their interests. On the other hand, the government must manage everything through public affairs, using specific plans, policies, laws, and working methods. Whenever these public affairs operate, they immediately touch Netizens’ interests. The Internet provides the Netizens a fast and convenient sharing media for expressing their feelings. They express these emotions, attitudes, and opinions specifically about the nation, the government, or public affairs; therefore they are reflections of the Netizens’ social political attitude.

The Internet public opinion expressed by the Netizens has become an important force for directing and influencing general public opinion.

Internet information can flow globally and freely. It makes “world affairs” become “things next door.” When the Netizens express their opinions, they are no longer limited by regional factors. They can easily share in real time with people thousands of miles away. The quickness, convenience, and interactivity of Internet conversations are quickly drawing Netizens from everywhere and with different voices. Eventually it will form a huge force of social public opinion, draw more attention from society and can even become a great public voice that will influence decision making. Therefore, we cannot overlook the Netizens’ influence over Internet public opinion.

When Netizens use the Internet, they usually follow social public affairs. There is a typical path in the development of each discussion. In many cases, it has continuity, diffusibility, and the ability of gathering a large audience. Communication about public affairs, from beginning to end, will usually last for a while. The Netizens’ Internet public opinions reflect on public affairs and will also go through a beginning, development, climax, fading, and disappearance or residual period. This makes the Netizens’ Internet actions show continuity, diffusibility, and the characteristics of being able to gather a large audience. It is these characteristics that result in some information being able to induce strong reactions, lead to high-level attention from the government, and induce lots of discussions by sectors of the community.

The Safeguard System for Reporting on Unexpected Incidents [4]
Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, May 14, 2009

Leading principle: ensure that reporting is ordered and highly efficient.

Unexpected incidents include natural disasters, accidents, public health affairs, and social security incidents. In recent years, the number of unexpected incidents in China has shown a tendency to increase. Therefore, the news media should not take unexpected incidents as something atypical. Instead, they should take the reporting of unexpected incidents as part of their everyday operations.

First, the system needs to be perfected in order to enable fast reactions to the unexpected incidents. A steering committees needs to be formed to uniformly coordinate the news interviewing groups, technical support groups, and administrative service groups. This way the number of intermediate links can be reduced to ensure the fast reporting of unexpected incidents.

Next, the discipline in reporting unexpected incidents must be very high and strict. The media needs to have specific people to keep in touch with the higher propaganda management branch and convey the direction and spirit from the branch in a timely manner, so that the degree of reporting can be controlled and public opinion can be steered correctly.

Lastly, regular meetings need to be added to the system of reporting unexpected incidents. During the period of the unexpected incidents, the steering group needs to set a time every day to have a meeting with the main people from relevant departments, so that directions from the propaganda management branch can be passed down. The meeting can help everyone to realize shortcomings in reporting and to be clear about the stresses to be reported on and the direction that later reports need to take. Within the meeting, manpower and material resources can be more reasonably arranged and the reporting time and layout can be scientifically adjusted. This ensures an ordered, strong, and highly efficient reporting of unexpected incidents.

[1] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, 2009-5-19
[2] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, 2009-5-19
[3] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, 2009-5-19
[4] Chinese Academy of Social Science Newspaper, 2009-5-14

Defeating Cyber Attacks: Ghosts Cannot Live in Sunlight

Formed in 2006, the Global Internet Freedom Consortium (GIF) is an alliance of several leading organizations that are developing and deploying anti-censorship technologies for Internet users living under oppressive regimes. The Consortium partners have contributed significantly to the advancement of information freedom in China, Iran and other “censorship” countries. Two of GIF’s most popular anti-censorship software tools, FreeGate and UltraSurf, have played a critical role in enabling Iranians in the recent election aftermath to connect and communicate over the Internet when their government blocked most overseas news and social networking websites overseas. It is estimated that, on June 20, 2009, alone, over 1 million Iranians used GIF to visit previously censored websites.

In addition,GIF itself has constantly been fending off cyber attacks launched against it.

On October 22, 2009, the U.S. Congressional Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, held a hearing on the ways in which new media and Internet communication technologies affect the balance of power between human rights activists and authoritarian governments. Zhou Shiyu, Deputy Director of GIF provided testimony at the hearing. Zhou estimated that over 90% if anti-censorship traffic comes through GIF servers. GIF has the current capacity to support 1.5 million people per day. It is working on expanding its capacity to meet the rapidly growing demand.

Chinascope recently interviewed Dr. Peter Li, GIF’s Chief Technology Officer.

Chinascope:  Recently President Obama launched the cyber security plan. Are cyberattacks a real threat to U.S. national security? Continue reading

The Journey of Clarifying the Truth While Being Persecuted — Falun Gong Practitioners From Mainland China Tell Their Personal Stories (From 1999 To the Present)

On July 20, 1999, the then leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Jiang Zemin, banned the Falun Gong spiritual practice. At the beginning of the suppression, Jiang intended to eradicate Falun Gong in “three months.” Intelligence agents locked onto Falun Gong practitioners whom they thought to be “leaders,” and its propaganda machinery prepared potent fabrications to vilify Falun Gong and turn the public against it. In so many previous persecutions, these two steps alone were enough to break the backbone and spirit of any victim group.

After failing to eradicate Falun Gong in a quick way, CCP has largely remained quiet about Falun Gong in its state-run media over the last several years, making the impression that Falun Gong is no longer in existence in China. So, did Jiang and the CCP achieve their goal? Where are the practitioners in China? What do they do these days? With these questions in mind, Chinascope interviewed the editor of the Chinese website, Minghui, whose English counterpart is, is the primary website for Falun Gong practitioners to obtain Falun Gong related information, report their activities, and share their experiences with each other.

Continue reading

Wu Bangguo: China Will Never Introduce a System Where Multiple Parties Hold Office in Rotation

Wu said, “Maintaining the correct political direction is the essence of doing the NPC work well. To maintain the correct political direction, the most fundamental issue is that the party’s leadership persists and that China’s political system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) persist, not the multi-party system of Western countries. The CCP is the core of China’s leadership and the incumbent party. Various democratic parties are the participating parties, not the incumbent party, nor the opposition party.” [1]

Wu suggested that the congress members should “fully understand the essential difference between the National People’s Congress and the parliaments in Western countries, fully understand the essential difference between the National People’s Congress and “One Government, Two Houses” and the state agencies in Western countries; fully understand the essential difference between the NPC members and the parliament members in Western countries; and improve self-consciousness and firmness in persisting on the socialist road with Chinese characteristics.” He added, “Our NPC members, NPC standing committee members and special committee members, regardless of their being communist party members, democratic party members or non-party persons, all fulfill their responsibilities according to the law under the leadership of the CCP. The NPC makes the laws and resolutions and makes decisions on the country’s major policies according to the party’s wishes and the people’s wishes. The NPC’s work guarantees that the party’s wishes becoming the nation’s will through legal proceedings, and guarantees that the candidates that the party recommends become the state’s leadership personnel through legal proceedings.” “The NPC’s various kinds of work must all benefit the reinforcement and improvement of the party leadership, benefit the consolidation of the party’s ruling status, and benefit the guarantee for the party’s leaders to lead the people and govern the nation effectively.” “The CCP is the core leadership for the enterprise of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The party leadership can only be reinforced but cannot be weakened.” [1]

The Party-run media also expressed a similar view. On March 09, 2009, the Xinhua News Agency reported that Chairman Wu Bangguo’s above expression “is the honorable reiteration on continuing the NPC system under the CCP’s leadership, and is also the dignified declaration of the firm belief that the Chinese people steadfastly walk down the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and constantly develop and improve the democratic system with Chinese characteristics.” [2]

On March 10, the Xinhua News Agency again published an article to further emphasize, “The CCP’s leadership must persist over state agencies. Different levels of government agencies, including state power agencies, administrative agencies and judicial agencies, must all accept the party’s leadership. The two-party system or the multi-party system will never be introduced, nor will the system of ‘multi-party election’ or ‘multiple parties holding office in rotation.’” [3]

On April 1, Qiushi Journal, a magazine publication by the Communist Party of China’s Central Committee Institution, published an article titled “Why the NPC System Must Persist, but We Cannot Introduce a System with the Separation of the Three Powers” by “Qiu Shi” (Autumn Stone), The article said that, “The NPC system which China carries is the people’s democratic system under the CCP’s leadership. China cannot introduce the same kind as the West. Although the capitalist countries flaunt that the ‘power belongs to people,’ in fact it is a ‘money democracy’ and capital rules. In the capitalist countries, a small number of people, relying on their strong capital, can control the democratic demands from the weak middle and lower classes. The magic of money is enough to oppress most people and to keep them silent against the despotism of capital.” (We) must clearly recognize the inherent problems and untruthfulness of bourgeois democracy.” “The NPC system assures the CCP’s leadership and ruling status. It eliminates the system of “multi-party elections” or “multiple parties holding office in rotation” in the political framework. In our country, although various state agencies hold different jobs and responsibilities, they are all under the leadership of the CCP and carry on their jobs having independent responsibilities to perform their duties.” [4] “Qiu Shi” is only a pen name. This group’s members include Yin Zhongqing, Chang Guangmin, Yang Shaohua, and Li Chuanzhu.

On April 16, the Qiushi Journal published another article under the name of “Qiu Shi,” titled "Why the Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System under the CCP’s Leadership Must Persist, but We Cannot Carry on a Multi-Party Political System like the Westerners.” This article said that “The democratic party members and the non-party persons enter the NPC, government, the Political Consultative Conference and the judicial system to hold leadership positions and establish good cooperation and working relationships with the CCP cadres, which is the important content of our multi-party cooperation and political consultation system and is also an essential requirement for strengthening the party’s ruling ability and state power.” [5].

In order to prove the advantages of a one-party system, on May 1, 2009, Yin Zhongqing, the director of the NPC Standing Committee Research Office, wrote an article for Qiushi Journal, stating that, “The party’s leadership mainly focuses on politics, ideology and organization. Through the establishments of major policies, the proposals on legislation and the recommendations of important cadres, it carries out the ideological propaganda, party organization and party member’s functions, performs duties according to the law and implements the party’s leadership of the country and society. All levels of administrative agencies, including the state power agencies, the administrative agencies and the judicial agencies, must maintain the party’s leadership and accept the party’s leadership. The party organizations must be established within the NPC and the Standing Committee. The party organizations’ responsibility is to lead the NPC members and the Standing Committee members to fulfill the party’s leadership. Through legal proceedings, they make the party’s proposal become the nation’s will, and make the candidates recommended by the party organization become the state power leaders and carry on surveillance for them at the same time. The NPC and the standing committee are not organizations of the parties’ consultation. The democratic party members and the non-party persons enter the NPC and the standing committee through legal elections by the voters or the electoral units so they cannot conduct activities as the representatives of their parties and groups.” “We maintain the NPC system so that (we can) lift up high the flag of socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics … maintain the central concentration of power and maintain the CCP’s ruling status.” [6]

There was another article in the same issue of the Qiushi Journal, “Why We Must Persist on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, but Cannot Take another Path.” It said that, “At present, the international financial crisis caused by the loan crisis in the U.S. has exposed the inherent shortcomings of the capitalist system. But socialism with Chinese characteristics actually displays “only good scenery,” unfolds the full vitality, and has attracted more and more people’s vision. In the last few years, in the overseas media and academic circles, the discussion of “Beijing mutual recognition,” the “Chinese pattern,”  “China experiences,”, and “China development path” are very exciting. China has already shown its significant and profound impact on maintaining world peace, promoting community development and impelling human cultural progress, and will continue to do so.” “In contemporary China, only the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics and no other flag can, at its maximum limit, unite and abridge different social classes and different social groups’ wisdom and the strength; only the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics and no other path can lead China to realize its renaissance; only the theory system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and no other principle can lead China’s development to progress.”  “During its development process, socialism must absorb all outstanding civilized achievements that humanity had created, including the civilized achievements created in capitalist society.” And it pointed out, “After passing through a long historic process, socialism will eventually defeat capitalism.” [7]

The article also said that we need to, “maintain Marxism’s guiding position in the ideological domain; maintain the CCP’s leadership over the entire country and enterprise development; maintain the consolidation of state power with the people’s democratic dictatorship; maintain the socialist road; maintain socialism’s basic economic system with domination over the public ownership system as the main system, along with communal development of many kinds of ownership systems; continue realizing and developing socialist democracy; maintain that the development achievement benefits all people; maintain social justice; gradually realize the common richness, and maintain the scientific development concept with the domination of humanity and the comprehensive coordination of sustainable development. All these above indicate that we have the reform and open policy and that (traditions from) “ancestors” have not been discarded. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is surnamed “Socialism,” but is not surnamed “Capitalism.”… “The socialist system is the lifeblood of China’s development; the socialist direction that China has developed does not allow it to be changed; China will not go down an evil path under a different banner. This did not happen in the past and will not happen in the future.” [7]

At the end, this article said, “Since the start of the reform and open policy, Chinese communists….have focused on consolidation and development of the socialist system,….have formed the overall layout for building a socialist market economy,  socialist democratic politics, socialist advanced culture and a socialist harmonious society; have formed a whole set of policy systems covering the economic, political, cultural, social, technical, and diplomatic reunification of the motherland, the party’s construction and so on, suitable with the fundamental realities of the socialist initial stage. …Only then can socialism save China.” [7].

[1] NPC Standing Committee Work Report by Wu Bangguo, Chairman
[2] Xinhua News Agency, March 9, 2009, “The 11th NPC Second Session Holds Second All Hands Meeting,”
[3] Xinhua News Agency, March 10, 2009, “‘Two Absolute No’s’ is Country’s Foundation and People’s Wish,” by Bi Xiaozhe,
[4] Qiushi Journal, April 1, 2009, “Why Must Persist the NPC System, but Cannot Introduce a System with the Separation of the Three Powers," by “Qiu Shi”,
[5] Qiushi Journal, April 16, 2009, by “Qiu Shi”, “Why Persist the Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System under CCP’s Leadership, but Cannot Carry on a Multi-Party Political System like the West," by “Qiu Shi”,
[6] Qiushi Journal, May 1, 2009, “Persist and Improve NPC system,” by Yin Zhongqing,
[7] Qiushi Journal, May 1, 2009, "Why We Must Persist on the Road of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, but Cannot Take Another Path," by “Qiu Shi,”

Study Times: Actively Dealing with Challenges from Information Dissemination through the Internet

With the rapid technological development of Internet information dissemination, new Internet media emerge quickly. The pattern of information dissemination in our country is changing profoundly. National security and social stability are facing a real threat and a serious challenge. Adapting to rapid dissemination of Internet information and diligently controlling the power of the Internet to lead public opinion is a significant test on our party’s ability to rule.

The Basic Situation of Internet Information Dissemination and Development

1. The Rapid growth of Internet users changes the pattern of information dissemination

The total number of Internet users in our country has surpassed 300 million people, ranking us first in the world. The popularity ratio has reached 22.6%, surpassing the world’s average rate. But compared to the developed countries (US 72.5%, Japan 73.8%), there is still a big gap and substantial potential for growth. The total number of Internet users increased by 88 million from 2007 to 2008, with daily increases of more than 240,000 people. We can foresee that in several years, the total number of Internet users will continue to grow and surpass half of the total population. The pattern of information dissemination in our country and the social life pattern would change tremendously.

2. The pattern of Internet users is changing gradually and usage is expanding to more areas

For a long time, Internet information dissemination in our country covered primarily cities, developed areas and young people. This situation is changing. In 2008, the Internet users in the countryside reached 84.6 million people, a 68.8% increase compared to 2007, much higher growth than the cities (35.6%). Internet users in the western areas grew very quickly with a growth rate of 52%, much higher than the middle areas (40.6%) and the eastern areas (39.3%). The growth rate of Internet users from the age of 10 to 19 years-old and over 40 years-old surpassed 2007, but that of other age groups has dropped. Generally speaking, the pattern of Internet users shows a growing trend from the city to the countryside, from the east to the west, and from youth to other age groups. In the near future, with the further development of campus and village networks, Internet users will continue to increase in the countryside, in Western areas and among middle school students and elementary school students. The gap between the city and countryside and the gap between different areas and age groups will reduce gradually.

3. The Expansion of web application domains has changed people’s life styles

The Internet provides all kinds of functions, including news dissemination, information search, email, instant communication, community forums, games and entertainment, electronic commerce, Internet finance and so on. The new Internet users entered the Internet world with the ability to use one or a few functions, and then gradually expanded to other application domains. With the constant development of new functions and the expansion of the application domains, people’s life styles as related to study, work and daily life are changing profoundly. At the same time, the corresponding cyber crimes have also inevitably increased. Internet security and social stability are facing new challenges.

 4. Development of the Internet improves dissemination of multimedia platforms

Traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, radio stations, and television stations have established their own websites. Many websites provide one platform with multimedia functions. The combination of traditional media and Internet media has become a trend, pushing the formation of multimedia platforms on the Internet. The Internet media not only disseminate words and pictures, but also disseminate audio and video. The Internet’s digital characteristic enables itself to conveniently connect with digital products, such as cell phones, digital cameras, and digital video cameras and quickly disseminate live audios and videos. If the corresponding government agencies cannot effectively manage the new media nor be able to effectively control the direction of the Internet media opinion, it might be dangerous to have things or messages out of control when significant events occur, and thus have a disastrous influence on social stability.
5. The rise of an Internet opinion community changes how public opinion forms
With its interactive nature, openness, and anonymity, the Internet has become the most active place to express political opinion and participate in politics. It forms an important platform for generating, adjusting, and spreading ideas. On the Internet, some websites, forums and blogs with clear political stances have appeared which have established both "opinion communities" that pay attention to news events and directly express their opinions, and "opinion leaders" who lead Internet public opinion. They display significant strength on public opinion and seriously influence the formation of public opinion and social stability.
6. The development of Internet information technology improves Internet dissemination
Due to the Internet’s convenience, fast dissemination and lack of supervision or approval requirements, the dissemination of Internet information is faster than traditional media. The constant improvement in Internet technology drives the constant progress on Internet information dissemination. The broad-band Internet and the mobile Internet have brought fast and convenient Internet information dissemination. By the end of 2008, broad-band Internet users reached 270 million people, 90.6% of total Internet users; mobile Internet users reached 117.6 million people, a 133.8% increase compared with 2007. With the beginning of the 3G technology era, the advantages of cell phones and notebooks will combine with the 3G mobile networks to reach individual mobile terminals. Mobility and the ease in information flow will bring speed and more convenience to Internet information dissemination. The mobile Internet users might increase dramatically and will certainly seriously impact society.
The Social Effect of Internet Information Dissemination

1. Internet media collects and distributes information and viewpoints, and affects society’s public opinion

Regardless of how much information content or the number of viewpoints, Internet media has surpassed traditional media and has become an important source of public opinion. After some events were disclosed on-line, they caused strong reactions among Internet users, which resulted in the resolution of some things.  For instance, it was revealed that the photo of the Southern Chinese tiger was a fake, the verdict for the case of Xu Ting’s ATM money withdrawal was revoked, the decision to hire the female cadre from the black brick kiln was overturned, the "Peek-a-boo" event was investigated, and so on. Not only positive information was distributed online. Negative information, such as hearsay, rumors and fake news were on there as well. If the Internet is not carefully managed and guided, it will have a negative influence on public opinion.

2. Internet forums stir Internet users’ emotions, which brings about social action

Web user’s true images and identities are replaced with symbols and people are anonymous on Internet forums. They may express their opinions without any concern. All kinds of concepts are collected, mixed and clash, along with harmful and negative opinions. The Internet forums become "opinion markets." The postings become "opinion advertisements." During the forum discussion, people with similar interests and viewpoints easily gather together and form their unique political group. This political group amplifies the Internet users’ opinions and becomes "group rebellion," which leads to the extreme phenomenon of public opinions leaning to one side. The Internet forum becomes the breeding ground for public opinion, and the accumulation of emotion, until social action is initiated; the transformation from hypothesized politics to realistic politics is then realized.

3. Internet communication secretly transmits messages and organizes social networks

The Internet communication (including email and instant messaging) is an important function that is both secretive and quick. Email is easy to use, fast on delivery, easy to keep, and can travel around the world with words, audio and video and so on. It can be transmitted from one to one or from one to many and it dramatically changes the way of information dissemination. While email is convenient for people, domestic and international hostile forces can also use it. In 2008, before the "March 14" incident happened, overseas Tibetans seeking independence transmitted emails with the “proposal for the Tibetan people to revolt" and Dalai’s "March 10" speech, which repeatedly instigated people.

4. The Internet has a strong search capability for related information and identifies social roles

Search engines like Baidu, Google, and Sohu have strong information retrieval functions and can instantaneously search tens of billions of homepages for related information, which brings great convenience to study, research, work, and life. In 2008, the number of search engine users reached 203 million people, an increase of 51 million people and a growth of 33.6% compared to 2007. The search engine has become a very important method for Internet surveillance. When the picture of a director of a bureau from Nanjing, smoking very expensive cigarettes, was exposed on the Internet, he was quickly identified and he got what he deserved.

5. The views spreading via blogs on the Internet will impact society’s mainstream views

Internet blogs are the fastest growing media in recent years. Writing a personal blog is forming a new cultural phenomenon. The popularization of Web2.0 "de-centralized" the information exchange in a nonlinear way, has broken the restrictions on web publishing and eliminated links among Internet users.  Now each user can be an initiator of any information stream, everyone can be a journalist, a writer, and an editor for their own publications. Not only have many websites created various types of blog channels, but there are also many special blog sites. In 2008 China had 162 million blog writers, of whom 105 million updated their blogs in the past six months. Views spread through the blogs have been and will continue to influence mainstream society’s thoughts.

6. Websites became platforms for organizing social activities

Dating sites and online communities have enabled users to organize into different groups. They offer platforms for people with similar interests to organize group activities (such as hiking), and this has greatly enriched netters’ lives. Websites also offer effective ways for people to organize collective petition activities. In February of 2009, former employees of the Guangxi banking system who were forcibly bought out used the Internet to organize a large-scale collective petition in Beijing. The organizers not only released the time of action, routes, secret codes, and back-up plan via the Internet, but also arranged interviews with foreign journalists to cover the petition. The Internet communicates information quickly, widely and efficiently, making it very convenient to organize large-scale activities.

Suggestions on Strategies to Strengthen the Establishment and Management of Internet Applications

1. Change ways of thinking, strengthen and improve the CCP’s leadership on the Internet

The Internet has become an important channel for its users to express opinions, interests and emotion. It has also become a new platform for the CCP and government to learn public opinion, pool people’s wisdom and better manage state affairs. CCP leaders of all levels should fully understand and pay great attention to the importance of the Internet. The Internet is a flat networking world; it is difficult to use the traditional bureaucratic method to manage the flat network. We should change the traditional way and establish a modern way of thinking, considering a flat strategy to manage the flat network. Our leaders should enhance Internet awareness and improve the quality of information exchange; we should learn how to utilize the Internet for our work. In particular, we must fully understand the current highly complicated and very serious situation on the Internet, enhance a sense of urgency and a sense of crisis, we must actively occupy the Internet frontier, and firmly control the initiatives on the Internet. We recommend issuing a document within the Party to provide guidelines for Internet management, unify our Party members’ thinking, strengthen and improve the CCP’s leadership on Internet control, and continuously improve our establishment, utilization and management of the Internet.

2. Speed up and perfect legislation and regulations of the Internet system

Currently China has "Computer Information Systems Security Protection Regulations," "Computer Information Network and the Internet Management Provisional Rules," the
"Electronic Signatures Law of the People’s Republic of China," and other laws and regulations. The NPC Standing Committee promulgated Decisions on Safeguarding Internet Security, the criminal laws added provisions against computer and cyber-crimes.  However, the legislation cannot keep up with the fast growth of Internet development. Our legal system is not complete; the provisions are not detailed and are difficult to execute. We need to strengthen the legislations on Internet activities based on our existing laws and regulations. Since Internet management involves many departments, we need to consolidate views of each unit and let a relatively detached department take the lead in legislative efforts. Our legislation should be based on China’s specific conditions, in order to develop and improve China’s Internet legal system with Chinese characteristics. One important principle for Internet legislation is to balance the state’s power and citizen’s civil rights. Our system should be able to refine and strengthen Internet monitoring, and control, and maintain order on the Internet, while avoiding over-regulation and restrictions of citizens’ freedom of speech on the Internet. At present, we need to particularly strengthen the protection of citizen’s civil rights, and severely punish rumors, insults, and slander on the Internet.

3. Treat the Internet as a propaganda frontier; strengthen the building of mainstream websites

We should focus our efforts on building important websites such as,, and other major news sites. We must seize control of public opinion, be the first to release major breaking news and become the main force in guiding public opinion on the Internet. We should also excel in establishing websites for each department of the central government, publish timely authoritative information in accordance with the regulations of government information publication, and host good “online Q & A” to serve Internet users and eliminate their doubts. In addition, each level of local government should allocate resources to establish good local government websites, timely update information, and expand their impact on local society; local government websites should maintain a high degree of consistency with the Central government on politics. Each college and school should establish and manage good campus websites to meet students’ Internet access needs, attract students back from less managed off-campus Internet cafes, and educate students to use the Internet in a legal, healthy and secure way.

4. Build a good Internet opinion guidance team

Publicity departments should integrate resources and increase the size of the Internet propaganda team, improve training of existing staff and attract high-quality talent with better rewards in order to build an Internet commentator team. We need to train more influential blog/Internet writers, and have them use their posts to guide public opinion on the Internet. We should allocate our resources to different Internet media bodies; develop different teams for news websites, web forums, blogs and chat rooms, and have our propaganda guidance penetrate into every link of information flow on the Internet. Our team members must change their language and communication habits, be good at using simple and vivid net language to communicate with net users, and avoid using traditional official language and an arrogant attitude when dealing with Internet users.

5. Improve system equipment and Internet monitoring technology

We need to increase funding for Internet management technology and equipment, in order to ensure that the Internet monitoring equipment keeps up with the development of communication technologies. We should speed up our research and development, in order to break through key technologies, such as information filtering, firewall and access control technologies, identification technology, and control and detect technologies. This way we could quickly form a high technologic, fully functioning, reasonable allocated nationwide Internet monitoring network, making sure our monitoring level is the most advanced in the world. We should train and attract high tech talent for this purpose, providing them with good pay comparable to similar talent in the community, in order to make sure our Internet management technology does not fall below the level of the community. 

6. Strengthen Internet management, and nurture a favorable environment for its development

The virtual community is a reflection and microcosm of actual society, we should adhere to the principle of managing on-line and off-line at the same time. We must combine administrative measures and economic rewards to make the website responsible for its own management, guiding commercial online media to follow the rules. We should also establish and improve an incentive mechanism to encourage net users to report damaging information, and involve net users in Internet management. This could help us detect damaging information quickly and eliminate the impact efficiently. We should reward the net users who report to us. Internet management involves the departments of publicity, culture, broadcasting, communications, public security, national security and many others. We must insist on the principle of every department being in charge of their part of the responsibilities of Internet management, in order to build a unified, authoritative, coordinated and efficient management system and operational mechanism. We should strengthen communication and integrate all resources, in order to manage efficiently and create a synergistic, favorable environment for Internet development.

[1] Study Times, May 4, 2009

Why Do So Many Wealthy Chinese Emigrate Overseas?

Three decades have passed since China implemented the Reform and Open-up policies. A large number of people have become millionaires. These many wealthy people have enjoyed the most luxurious food, drink, and fun, plus all of the benefits of abundant wealth. Yet, these men of wealth are successively emigrating overseas. What are the reasons? For the answer to this question, we need to analyze the following three aspects:

I. How Did These Millionaires Come into Being?

Mr. Yang Jisheng, once, described in detail in his speech on how these wealthy Chinese came into being. He explained, “China’s Reform policies made the national income gap between the rich and the poor widen significantly. There are normal and abnormal reasons for this disparity. The annual-high-income families in major cities and towns have a great deal of gray income, which is the main reason for the increase in their annual income. The sources of their gray income are listed below:

The Loss of Public Money, Including Government Funds, Social Security and State-Owned Assets:
In those instances where the Central Government invested in projects, the funds that were targeted for use in those projects were passed on to each level of the underlying contractors (the middlemen). When the funds actually got to  the projects themselves, what remained was less than 1/3 of the original appropriation.

Corruption exists at all levels of financial institutions. The loan recipients need not only to pay for the regular interest on the loan; but also for the extra fees that go to the pockets of the lending officials. The total amount of extra charges may be as high as 9 percent of the total loan amount. It was estimated in 2006 that the total of all kinds of loans from all the financial institutions in China amounted to 22 trillion yuan (US$3.2 trillion).

 The extra income, “the gray income,” was given to the officials of the national financial institutions. The administrative license to rent or sell land and issue approvals has resulted in a substantial loss of land revenue: In the year 2005, 40.3 acres of government-owned land was rented out, 1/3 of it were auctioned off and the price was much less than with other types of rent: A total value of 540 billion yuan (US$78.9 billion) was lost using this means. [ed: resulting in kickbacks to bank officials and huge windfalls to the “winning” bidder]

Those government officials who have amassed power and influence through nepotism or bribery have made enormous profits from monopolization. Business transactions have been ongoing between powerful government monopoly traders and the general traders who have less power. Those in power in the government control the prices of resources on market. For instance, with regard to land, the government uses administrative means to centralize, amassing land by buying it at a low price, and then selling the land to developers at a high price.

The income to monopolies: According to 2005 data, the mean wage and the extras from regular income of an industry worker in the electric power, telecommunications, petroleum, finance, water, electric power, tobacco and other monopoly industries is 5 to10 times more than the average income of a national everyday worker. Monopoly industries make use of the nation’s resources to further their business interests. The Chinese monopoly industries are basically administrative, or government monopolies.

 I used to call those who made a killing by using government power, “The Red-Cap Businessmen,” since they amassed their profits as a result of power gained from their association with the government. During the Reform and Open-up period, the Four Peak Times of wealth accumulation for “the Red-Cap Businessmen,” were as follows:

1. The First-Peak Time, the State Monopoly and the Initial-Open Period (mainly, the State-monopoly on the import of goods): Before 1994, under the official exchange rate, the currency value of the Renminbi (RMB) was overestimated. Therefore, one earned a great deal of money as he imported goods from overseas and sold them at home. People with a powerful background could get import permits for goods from overseas. The children of prominent officials filled their pockets with import permits. When the import permits changed hands, they became millionaires. They don’t just own villas on the hillside in Hong Kong; they keep race horses and yachts.

2. The Second-Peak Time, the Period of the Double-Track Price System: This occurred from 1984 to 1993. In 1987, the difference in the prices in the Double-Track Price System for goods, capital and foreign exchange reached up to 200 billion yuan (US$29.2 billion), and made up almost 20 percent of the national income for 1997. In 1988, the disparities between the prices in the Double-Track Price System for common goods, capital and foreign exchange reached 356.9 billion yuan (US$52.2 billion,). That income was almost 30 percent of the national income in 1998.
3. The Third-Peak Time, the Period of Financial Capital: In the stock market, the amount paid for an the Initial Public Offerings (IPO), the determination of the price for new stocks on the market, and the ability to manipulate the stock market provided those “Red-Cap Businessmen” with huge gains. The ability to lease land and the power to demolish the old, and build the new in the real-estate market, also provided them with abundant opportunities.

4. The Fourth-Peak Time, the Period of the Restructure of the State-owned Assets: After 1997, China began the large-scale restructuring of state-owned assets. In succession, many state-owned enterprises gradually pulled out from those competitive businesses. This provided an unprecedented golden opportunity for the dramatic development of the private economy. In some areas and in some of the enterprises, the restructuring of state-owned assets became a disguised form of carving up of the state-owned assets. Among them, the practice of the Management Buyout (MBO) made many managers of the state-owned enterprises billionaires overnight. “The Red-Cap Businessmen” amassed more wealth than during these Four-Peak Times (some of which often overlapped each other). They have become bolder and have employed brighter and cleverer ways to amass profits. We just don’t know how many billionaires were generated in China during these Four-Peak Times.

From all the above contents in Mr. Yang’s speech, we clearly understand how these wealthy Chinese came into being. They worry that they may not always be able safeguard their property in China, since most of their ill-gotten wealth was acquired from unknown origins. It goes without saying; they’d naturally desire to emigrate abroad.

II. The Changes in International and Domestic Circumstances Drive These Wealthy Chinese to Emigrate Overseas
Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the dramatic changes that took place in Eastern Europe, the International Communist Movement has been at an all time low. The United States of America led a group of supremacists (elitists), who actively implemented expansionist policies, and ceaselessly provoked armed conflicts around the world to create utter confusion, so the current international situation has been extremely unstable. At home, some groups of corrupt officials, acting in cahoots with the domestic and overseas capitalists, went along with their evil deeds, abusing their power and stealing the public wealth without restraint. They have wasted domestic natural resources, seized and occupied the common people’s properties, undermined the unity of members of the Party and the common people, undermined the unity of the key group and the common people and created dissension in the form of social conflicts and social crises.

Being the mainstream wealthy Chinese, the group of bureaucratic capitalists and the capitalist reps knew clearly that if the situation continued like this, they would get themselves into big trouble or stir up dramatic political changes. They knew clearly that, no matter how the social circumstance varied and no matter whether China would find its way to Capitalism or Socialism, their personal interests would be strongly impacted. Therefore, they refused to go down without a fight and thought of emigrating as soon as possible, rather than staying at home and doing nothing.

III. The Wealthy Chinese’ Own Political, Moral and Psychological Qualities Are the Determining Factor for Them to Emigrate Overseas

Most of the Chinese millionaires are the descendants of aristocratic families of high-ranking officials. Their ancestors, or their fathers, had high-ranking government posts with high political positions in Chinese society. Although during the10 years of the “Cultural Revolution,” their fathers lost out a little bit; yet, the implementation of Reform and Open-up brought them very advantageous political and economic positions. Deng Xiaoping said that the policies allowed some of people to have the priority to become rich. Then, 30 years later, the people who had the priority to become rich were those people who were in favorable positions and gained special advantages.

These kinds of people are actually the new-money in today’s Chinese society. Their political, moral and psychological qualities are quite inferior and low-grade. During the so-called “Unrest Time,” since they suffered from negative political impact, as a result, they were naturally and especially hostile to and avoided Mao Zi Dong’s revolutionary line. Since they worry very much that Chinese society will be in a turbulent situation as it was previously; therefore, they made use of the power in their hands and the mass media to slander and criticize Mao Zi Dong’s revolutionary line. They have also resisted and suppressed the currently existing model of socialism’s massive collectives. They attempted to change their country into a colony of Capitalism.

However, inside the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), leftists are still a strong force. They have never given up their battle for their viewpoints and principles. They keep waging a blow-for-blow fight against Rightists, and their existence threatens the political and the economic positions of the vested interests.

The force of the leftists and the high-ranking officials of the CCP members have tried their best to safeguard the political characteristics of Chinese Socialism, and to uncover the plot of peaceful evolution (from socialism back to capitalism) that the groups of Imperialists overseas and the Rightists at home have conspired to bring about. The rich Chinese believe that as long as China doesn’t change its socialist state-owned politics, their private property cannot be protected at home. To safeguard their vested interests and their aristocratic positions, they have to choose to emigrate overseas.

The above speech stands only for the personal perspective of the author himself, and thus cannot stand for the perspective of the Global Times.

[1] Website of Global Times, February 17, 2009

Financial Crisis Leaves Dongguan with Nothing (Part III)

The Xiao Xia Who Does Not Want to Go Home

“Here you see people and cars everyday; at home you can only see pigs and ox-wagons. Would you go home if you were me?”

– By reporter Wang Daqi and intern reporter Li Shaoqing, from Dongguan

At Dongguan Industrial Park, there was a giant red board in front of a toy factory announcing jobs.  A group of migrant workers were talking next to the board, yet no one dared to go inside. Xiao Xia was one of them. He was looking at the board, “Room and board covered, monthly salary 800 yuan.”

“Is it a trap?” Xiao Xia talked to the reporters, thinking they were also unemployed workers like him. “I look too young. I am afraid that they will not hire me. Why don’t you go in first, you could say that the three of us are together. That way it will be easier (for me to be hired).”

Xiao Xia, a sixteen year old boy with his hair dyed yellow, left his hometown in Henan Province and came to Dongguan more than two years ago. He worked at a radio factory before. “(The job was easy.) All you needed to do was to stick all the parts on to a circuit board.” Xiao Xia said the work was a bit boring, but he got paid more than 1000 yuan a month. “We were paid for each piece completed, as long as we finished our quota each day, that’s it.  If I worked more, I would get overtime pay, 5 yuan for each hour.”  Xiao Xia was good at the work. He could often finish his quota ahead of time and then go back to sleep.

Last January, the boss told Xiao Xia and his friends that he had to deduct one month worth of their wages because they “did not obey the management and were involved in fighting.”  Xiao Xia told the reporters, “As a matter of fact, the boss was running out of money, so he looked for excuses not to pay us. We fought before but the boss never cared. We did not sign any contract with the factory and we are responsible for our own fighting. Why should the boss deduct money from our wages?”

Xiao Xia and his friends went on strike for a week.  Finally the boss agreed to pay their wages, but the condition was that they had to leave.  Xiao Xia and three other people left the factory, one of them went back to his hometown in Henan Province. Xiao Xia and the other two are still at Dongguan looking for jobs.

When Xiao Xia and the reporters went inside the toy factory the manager and director were both there.  They told the reporters and Xiao Xia, “Our boarding rooms are full now, so we stopped hiring temporarily. You can fill out a form and we will contact you when we start hiring again.”

Walking out of the toy factory, Xiao Xia was calm. He told the reporters that he has been looking for more than a month and filled out more than a dozen forms like this. Many places only look for skilled workers, some only look for women, there is no demand for unskilled general labor.

This is very common in Dongguan.  Under the global financial crisis, all factories are looking for ways to cut costs. Female workers eat less and are more careful at work. They are also easier to manage than male laborers.

Xiao Xia said he had used an employment broker before. They “guaranteed to find a job.” After paying 100 yuan to the broker, Xiao Xia was sent to a factory as a janitor where he had to pay another 50 yuan before starting work at the factory.  Several days later, the factory asked Xiao Xia to show them his contract. Then, they tore the contract into pieces in front of Xiao Xia and fired him blaming he “did not work hard.” Xiao Xia said he did not trust any employment brokers any more.

Yet Xiao Xia is quite confident. “I changed several jobs before, but back then everyone was hiring. I believe the companies still need labor. I will keep looking. The worst case is do temporary work.” Xiao Xia said he likes to do temporary work, as you get paid every day, and you are free to leave at anytime.

Xiao Xia brought the reporters to the factory that just fired him, “they are still hiring.”

Xiao Xia hid away watching the reporters walk through the low ceiling aisle by smelly, dirty water and going up three stories of stairs full of mold. We heard the machines and saw a big warehouse full of young workers busy sewing. No one looked at us.

The wife of the boss came over with a baby on her back and looked at us suspiciously. She told us the job offer: monthly wages of 900 yuan but no boarding. We found an excuse and left.

Xiao Xia has an older brother at Houjie, Dongguan working as a driver. He will not lose his job since he has the skill of driving. However, Xiao Xia does not want to live with his brother, because his brother tried to discipline him. “Last year I fought with people from the next door factory, when my brother found out about it, he took away the knife that I bought for more than 20 yuan. I had a big argument with him and never went back.”

Local residents said there are many young people wandering around the streets lately. Many people do not dare to go outside at night now, as people are worried that the town is no longer safe.

When talking about his future, Xiao Xia said he would stay in Dongguan by working temporary jobs. To him, it is not just the matter of making money; he cannot stand living in the countryside, as compared with life in the city.

“Here you see people and cars everyday; at home you can only see pigs and ox-wagons. Would you go home if you were me?”

[1] “The Xiao Xia Who Does Not Want to Go Home,” Nanfang People Weekly, April 13, 2009